Squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck are appearing with increased frequency in both marrow transplanted and non-transplanted Fanconi anemia (FA) patients. FA patients commonly display radiosensitivity of epithelial tissues, complicating effective radiotherapy. Fancd2–/– mice (C57BL/6J and 129/Sv background) demonstrate epithelial tissue sensitivity to single-fraction or fractionated irradiation to the head and neck and distant marrow suppression (abscopal effect), both ameliorated by intraoral administration of the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, GS-nitroxide, JP4-039. We now report that mice of two other FA genotypes, Fancg–/– (B6) and the most prevalent human genotype Fanca–/– (129/Sv), also demonstrate: 1. reduced longevity of hematopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures; 2. radiosensitivity of bone marrow stromal cell lines; and 3. head and neck radiation-induced severe mucositis and abscopal suppression of distant marrow hematopoiesis. Intraoral administration of JP4-039/F15, but not non-mitochondrial-targeted 4-amino-Tempo/F15 or F15 alone, prior to each radiation treatment ameliorated both local and abscopal radiation effects. Head and neck irradiated TGF-β-resistant SMAD3–/– (129/Sv) mice and double-knockout SMAD3–/– Fancd2–/– (129/Sv) mice treated daily with TGF-β receptor antagonist, LY364947, still displayed abscopal bone marrow suppression, implicating a non-TGF-β mechanism. Thus, amelioration of both local normal tissue radiosensitivity and distant marrow suppression by intraoral administration of JP4-039 in Fancg–/– and Fanca–/– mice supports a clinical trial of this locally administered normal tissue radioprotector and mitigator during head and neck irradiation in FA patients.
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Vol. 189 • No. 6