Novel synthetic compounds, known as manganese porphyrins (MnPs), have been designed to shift the redox status of both normal cells and cancer cells. When MnPs are coupled with cancer therapies, such as radiation, they have been shown to sensitize tumor cells to treatment and protect normal tissues from damage through the modulation of the redox status of various tissue types. Until now, our preclinical studies have focused on local effects of MnPs and radiation; however, we recognize that successful outcomes for cancer patients involve control of tumor cells throughout the body. In this study, using murine orthotopic mammary tumor models, we investigated how MnPs and radiation influence the development of distant metastasis. We hypothesized that the combination of MnP (MnP/RT), such as MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ and radiation treatment (RT) would increase local tumor control via a shift in the intratumoral redox environment, leading to subsequent downregulation of HIF-1 in the primary tumor. Secondarily, we hypothesized that these primary tumor treatment effects would result in a reduction in pulmonary metastatic burden. Balb/c mice with orthotopic 4T1 mammary carcinomas were treated with saline, MnP, RT or MnP/RT. We found MnP/RT did extend local tumor growth delay and overall survival compared to controls and was associated with increased intratumoral oxidative stress. However, the primary tumor growth delay observed with MnP/RT was not associated with a reduced pulmonary metastatic burden. Future directions to investigate the effects of MnP/RT on the development of distant metastasis may include modifications to the radiation dose, the experimental timeline or using a murine mammary carcinoma cell line with a less aggressive metastatic behavior. Clinical trials are underway to investigate the clinical utility of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ for patients undergoing radiotherapy for various tumor types. The promising preclinical data from this study, as well as others, provides support that MnP/RT has the potential to improve local tumor control for these patients.
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Vol. 195 • No. 2