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4 November 2021 Does Gender Difference Effect Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity? An Experimental Study by Genetic and Histopathological Predictors
Rusen Cosar, Alaattin Ozen, Ebru Tastekin, Necdet Sut, Suat Cakina, Selma Demir, Sule Parlar, Dilek Nurlu, Yusuf Kavuzlu, Zafer Koçak
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Abstract

Several studies have reported differences in radiation toxicity between the sexes, but these differences have not been tested with respect to histopathology and genes. This animal study aimed to show an association between histopathological findings of radiation-induced lung toxicity and the genes ATM, SOD2, TGF-β1, XRCC1, XRCC3 and HHR2. In all, 120 animals were randomly divided into 2 control groups (male and female) and experimental groups comprising fifteen rats stratified by sex, radiotherapy (0 Gy vs. 10 Gy), and time to sacrifice (6, 12, and 24 weeks postirradiation). Histopathological evaluations for lung injury, namely, intra-alveolar edema, alveolar neutrophils, intra-alveolar erythrocytes, activated macrophages, intra-alveolar fibrosis, hyaline arteriosclerosis, and collapse were performed under a light microscope using a grid system; the evaluations were semi quantitatively scored. Then, the alveolar wall thickness was measured. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to determine gene expression differences in ATM, TGF-β1, XRCC1, XRCC3, SOD2 and HHR2L among the groups. Histopathological data showed that radiation-induced acute, subacute, and chronic lung toxicity were worse in male rats. The expression levels of the evaluated genes were significantly higher in females than males in the control group, but this difference was lost over time after radiotherapy. Less toxicity in females may be attributable to the fact that the expression of the evaluated genes was higher in normal lung tissue in females than in males and the changes in gene expression patterns in the postradiotherapy period played a protective role in females. Additional data related to pulmonary function, lung weights, imaging, or outcomes are needed to support this data that is based on histopathology alone.

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Rusen Cosar, Alaattin Ozen, Ebru Tastekin, Necdet Sut, Suat Cakina, Selma Demir, Sule Parlar, Dilek Nurlu, Yusuf Kavuzlu, and Zafer Koçak "Does Gender Difference Effect Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity? An Experimental Study by Genetic and Histopathological Predictors," Radiation Research 197(3), 280-288, (4 November 2021). https://doi.org/10.1667/RADE-21-00075.1
Received: 12 April 2021; Accepted: 30 September 2021; Published: 4 November 2021
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