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15 December 2021 Dose-Rate Effects of Protons and Light Ions for DNA Damage Induction, Survival and Transformation in Apparently Normal Primary Human Fibroblasts
Paula V. Bennett, Alicia M. Johnson, Sarah E. Ackerman, Pankaj Chaudhary, Deborah J. Keszenman, Paul F. Wilson
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Abstract

We report on effects of low-dose exposures of accelerated protons delivered at high-dose rate (HDR) or a simulated solar-particle event (SPE) like low-dose rate (LDR) on immediate DNA damage induction and processing, survival and in vitro transformation of low passage NFF28 apparently normal primary human fibroblasts. Cultures were exposed to 50, 100 and 1,000 MeV monoenergetic protons in the Bragg entrance/plateau region and cesium-137 γ rays at 20 Gy/h (HDR) or 1 Gy/h (LDR). DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and clustered DNA damages (containing oxypurines and abasic sites) were measured using transverse alternating gel electrophoresis (TAFE) and immunocytochemical detection/scoring of colocalized γ-H2AX pS139/53BP1 foci, with their induction being linear energy transfer (LET) dependent and dose-rate sparing observed for the different damage classes. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for cell survival after proton irradiation at both dose-rates ranged from 0.61–0.73. Transformation RBE values were dose-rate dependent, ranging from ∼1.8–3.1 and ∼0.6–1.0 at low doses (≤30 cGy) for HDR and LDR irradiations, respectively. However peak transformation frequencies were significantly higher (1.3–7.3-fold) for higher doses of 0.5–1 Gy delivered at SPE-like LDR. Cell survival and transformation frequencies measured after low-dose 500 MeV/n He-4, 290 MeV/n C-12 and 600 MeV/n Si-28 ion irradiations also showed an inverse dose-rate effect for transformation at SPE-like LDR. This work demonstrates the existence of inverse dose-rate effects for proton and light-ion-induced postirradiation cell survival and in vitro transformation for space mission-relevant doses and dose rates.

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Paula V. Bennett, Alicia M. Johnson, Sarah E. Ackerman, Pankaj Chaudhary, Deborah J. Keszenman, and Paul F. Wilson "Dose-Rate Effects of Protons and Light Ions for DNA Damage Induction, Survival and Transformation in Apparently Normal Primary Human Fibroblasts," Radiation Research 197(3), 298-313, (15 December 2021). https://doi.org/10.1667/RADE-21-00138.1
Received: 10 July 2021; Accepted: 9 November 2021; Published: 15 December 2021
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