Utilization levels and residual height are tools for adaptive management, not management objectives.
Utilization/residual measurements are subject to many sources of sampling, procedural and personal errors.
Season of measurement has a strong influence on interpretation of results.
Utilization/residual guidelines are not rigid limits to be met every year, but a tool to identify stocking rate or distribution problems over several years.
Utilization/residual data must be relevant to management objectives.
Time, location, and protocol for measurement must be documented in plans, reports or management decisions based on the use of the data.
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Vol. 40 • No. 5