The study of ecological and behavioral aspects of anuran reproduction is fundamental for the understanding of the evolution of life history traits. In this study we present the temporal and spatial patterns of reproductive activity in Rhinella hoogmoedi, as well as the description of its advertisement call, in a population from a remnant of tropical rainforest in Northeastern Brazil. Calling activity began before the start of the rainy season and lasted from November to April; vocalization activity was not correlated with the amount of rainfall. Reproductive males called on a variety of substrates close to or in permanent or temporary water bodies, during both day and night. Male behavior at high and low densities, calling sites occupancy and reproductive period indicate an unusual explosive breeding pattern for the species. Rhinella hoogmoedi presented a multi-pulsed call, composed of pulse group calls, similar to Rhinella paraguayensis, Rhinella castaneotica, Rhinella martyi, populations of Rhinella gr. margaritifera from Bolivia, Rhinella margaritifera from French Guyana, and Rhinella gr. margaritifera from Cusco, Peru. Acoustic parameters such as call duration, number of pulse groups per call, number of calls per minute, note duration, number of notes per minute, pulse rate, dominant frequency, and amplitude modulation types of call, were good parameters to discriminate among the species of the Rhinella margaritifera group, as in the members of the Bufonidae family. New descriptions of complete advertisement calls and molecular studies will help elucidate taxonomic, biogeographic, and phylogenic patterns for this complex of species.
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