Herein we describe the tadpole and vocalizations of H. polytaenius (Cope, 1870) from populations of the Quadrilatáro Ferrífero highlands, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, and compare them with other species of the H. polytaenius clade and closely related species in the H. pulchellus group. The tadpoles differ from those of other species of the H. polytaenius clade by the shape of the body and snout in dorsal view, the degree of attachment of the spiracle inner wall to the body, and the tooth row formula 2(1,2)/3(1). The major differences from the closely related species in the H. pulchellus group refer to oral disc characteristics. Two types of calls were identified for H. polytaenius: one composed by one pulsed note and the other composed by isolated notes. Nevertheless, a call composed by two pulsed notes, possibly a territorial call, was recorded once. Comparisons of our results with those previously published for H. polytaenius from Estação Biológica da Boracéia, state of São Paulo, show differences with important taxonomic implications. The main differences in vocalizations between species of the H. polytaenius clade rely on spectral parameters. The closely related species in the H. pulchellus group present calls with increase in the intensity and longer duration than H. polytaenius. Additionally, for the purpose of comparison of the vocalizations between species from the H. polytaenius clade, we analyzed a record available of the call of H. phaeopleura.
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