Among vertebrates, amphibians are characterized by a great diversity of reproductive modes, including several forms of parental care. Caecilians, comprising the order Gymnophiona, are one of the most poorly known vertebrate groups due to the their Gondwanan distribution and primarily fossorial habits. Information about their reproductive biology can contribute to overall understanding of amphibians. The present review aims to encourage research on this group by providing an overview of caecilian reproduction, with greater detail on some topics considered relevant in morphology, fertilization, embriology, parental care, ecology, and the evolution of viviparity.
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