During the study of mites, inhabiting soil and litter in Zanzibar, Tanzania, five species of microdispid mites were found. Two of them, namely Cochlodispus zanzibariensis sp. nov. and Caesarodispus africanus sp. nov., are described as new for science. The genera Cochlodispus Mahunka, 1972 and Rostrodispus Mahunka, 1969 stat. nov. are redefined. Rostrodispus brevisetus (Mahunka, 1975a) comb. nov. and Scutadispus variosetosus (Mahunka, 1075a) comb. nov. are redescribed. Pseudomicrodispus setosus (Evans, 1952) is recorded from the Afrotropical region for the first time. Cochlodispus operosus Rack and Kaliszewski, 1985 is moved from the family Microdispidae to the genus Bakerdania of the family Neopygmephoridae.