Saeid Javadi Khederi, Mohammad Khanjani, Mansur Gholami, Enrico De Lillo
Systematic and Applied Acarology 23 (3), 405-425, (23 February 2018) https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.23.3.1
KEYWORDS: plant resistance induction, gall-mite, plant-mite interaction, mite density, plant responses, phytohormone
The erineum strain of Colomerus vitis (GEM) is the most destructive pest of vineyards in western Iran and sometimes causes considerable damages to the grapevine. Little information is available on the susceptibility of the grapevine to this pest and its knowledge can be useful for a sustainable management of GEM. The present study was aimed at evaluating the responses of the plants to the infestation of GEM in order to compare the resistance/susceptibility of some native cultivars to this pest. Also, the profiling of JA, SA and IAA in leaves of infested plants of Sezdang was studied. The experiment was carried out on eighteen native cultivars and the non-native Muscat Gordo which were selected amongst the most common in southern and western Iran. Potted plants were cultivated under greenhouse conditions at a temperature of 32 ± 3.8°C, 75 ± 5% R.H. and a photoperiod of L16: D8 h. The impact of GEM was evaluated on the basis of the leaf area and weight, number and size of the erinea, and percentage of leaves with erinea three months after the infestation. The cane length was measured, too. Mite density on galled leaves (three months after the infestation) and in buds (at the bud breaking) was assessed.
Cluster analysis based on the leaf damage index induced by GEM allowed to distinguish highly affected (Sezdang, Khalili, Ghalati and Rishbaba), moderately affected (Neyshaboori, Gazne, Muscat, Lale, Shahani Sefid, Ahmad, Monagha and Sia) and scarcely affected (Yaghuti, Rotabi, White Thompson, Atabaki, Koladari and Sahebi and Shahani Gerd) cultivars. The mite density into the buds and on the galled leaves was higher in the medium-late (Rishbaba and Khalili) and late ripening (Sezdang and Ghalati) cultivars rather than in the early (Sahebi and Shahani Gerd) and early-medium (Atabaki) ripening ones. The leaf damaged area, the leaf weight, the shoot length and the erineum development were correlated to the mite density and were the highest on Sezdang, Khalili, Ghalati and Rishbaba and the lowest on Atabaki, Koladari, Sahebi and Shahani Gerd. The highest density of the overwintering population was detected in proximal buds of all treated cultivars.
The plant responses and the mite density were investigated also in the second and third year after the first mite infestation on highly affected (Sezdang, Khalili, Ghalati, Rishbaba), a few of the moderately affected (Neyshaboori, Gazne, Muscat) and the scarcely affected cultivars (White Thompson, Atabaki, Koladari, Sahebi, Shahani Gerd). The leaf damaged area, the percentage of galled leaves, the percentage of cane length reduction and the mite density strongly decreased during all three years of observations on the highly affected Sezdang, Khalili and Gazne. On the contrary, Ghalati and Rishbaba displayed an increase of the leaf damaged area, leaf damaged index and mite density on galled leaves during the same period in comparison to the first year of observation. The percentage of the leaves with erinea, the leaf damaged area and the mite density of Sezdang were highly and positively correlated with IAA while a negative correlation was found between the leaf damaged area and the mite density with SA and JA in the assayed years. Almost all data currently collected allowed a recognition of White Thompson, Atabaki, Koladari, Sahebi and Shahani Gerd as the least affected cultivars.