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6 May 2022 Molecular characterization of trichlorfon resistance in bovine ticks Boophilus microplus collected from two ecological zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Muhammad Qasim, Mian Abdul Hafeez, Nisar Ahmad, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Oneeb
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Abstract

Boophilus microplus, an ectoparasite of bovines has immense importance in South Asian countries like Pakistan. These are cosmopolitans and affect cattle herds drastically worldwide and are involved in direct and indirect harm to the bovine species. In this regard, trichlorfon is widely used to control ticks in bovines along with its sprays to control different pests, which leads to resistance in ticks against these acaricides in different parts of the world. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the resistance and prevailing genomic mutations in Boophilus microplus ticks against trichlorfon. Molecular characterization was carried out and heterozygous mutations were observed in the adult tick samples collected from two different zones of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan. After the identification of ticks, in vitro studies were performed which showed resistance in ticks against trichlorfon drug. To assess genomic mutation in the samples, DNA was extracted through a kit, and PCR was performed to evaluate the mutation in the samples. After in-vitro studies, almost 104 (54%) ticks samples were found resistant and run through PCR in which 3 and 4 samples from zone-I and zone-II, were identified mutated while the remaining samples were found non-mutated. Boophilus microplus acetylcholinesterase genes were sequenced and compared with the control group. All these findings suggest a continuous monitoring of heterozygous mutations in the Boophilus microplus ticks and the strategic application of trichlorfon against Boophilus microplus ticks, to enable improvement in drug efficacy and tick control strategies.

Muhammad Qasim, Mian Abdul Hafeez, Nisar Ahmad, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, and Muhammad Oneeb "Molecular characterization of trichlorfon resistance in bovine ticks Boophilus microplus collected from two ecological zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan," Systematic and Applied Acarology 27(6), 1076-1084, (6 May 2022). https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.27.6.7
Received: 31 December 2021; Accepted: 12 February 2022; Published: 6 May 2022
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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KEYWORDS
acetylcholinesterase
Boophilus microplus
Genomic mutation
phylogenetical analysis
trichlorfon
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