Taxonomic features of species of Panicum, previously classified in section Cordovensia, subgenus Dichanthelium, of Panicum, are reviewed and compared with those of other taxa in the Paniceae. The new genus Parodiophyllochloa is proposed on the basis of ecological and morphological features (i.e. plants growing at the edge of forests, with membranous ligules, lower glume more than 1/2 the spikelet length, lower palea and lower flower absent, and upper anthecium indurate with simple papillae all over its surface) and chloroplast ndhF sequences to include six species ranging from Mexico to Argentina. The new combinations: Parodiophyllochloa cordovensis, P. missiona, P. ovulifera, P. pantricha, P. penicillata, and P. rhizogona are proposed. The new genus is compared with other genera of the Paniceae.
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