The effect of ingestion by coyotes (Canis latrans) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) on seed germination was investigated for four tree species in Illinois. The germination rate of persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) seeds ingested by raccoons was significantly higher than the rate for uningested seeds. Both were significantly higher than the rate for coyote-ingested seeds. Among coyote-ingested seeds, germination rates of persimmon were significantly higher when seeds were protected by undigested fruit pulp or intact seed sheaths thus reducing the exposure of seeds to gastrointestinal enzymes. American plum (Prunus americana) seeds ingested by coyotes had a significantly lower germination rate compared to uningested seeds, whereas germination of pawpaw (Asimina triloba) seeds was similar between coyote-ingested and uningested seeds. Germination was significantly lower for hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) seeds ingested by raccoons compared to uningested seeds. Ingestion improved germination only for persimmon seeds consumed by raccoons, but tree species may realize other benefits from dispersal by coyotes and raccoons (e.g., decreased parental competition).
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 142 • No. 1