Bobcat (Lynx rufus) populations have increased in the midwestern U.S. since the 1980s after substantial declines and local extirpations into the mid-1900s. We monitored 38 radio-collared bobcats (25 males, 13 females) from 1998 to 2006 in a recovering population in south-central Indiana to investigate survival and mortality causes. Annual survival was high (Ŝ = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.71–0.89), comparable to results from other studies of bobcats in unexploited populations and higher than in harvested populations. Of 17 known deaths, vehicle collisions were the largest source of mortality (n = 9; 53%), followed by illegal shootings (n = 3; 18%). Higher values of habitat heterogeneity within home ranges were associated with lower risk of mortality. Estimates of survival and mortality sources in recovering populations provide an important context to compare management strategies to improve bobcat conservation.
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