Open Access

This first Supplement since publication of the 7th edition (1998) of the AOU Check-list of North American Birds summarizes changes made by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between its reconstitution in late 1998 and 31 January 2000. Because the makeup of the Committee has changed significantly since publication of the 7th edition, it seems appropriate to outline the way in which the current Committee operates. The philosophy of the Committee is to retain the present taxonomic or distributional status unless substantial and convincing evidence is published that a change should be made. The Committee maintains an extensive agenda of potential action items, including possible taxonomic changes and changes to the list of species included in the main text or the Appendix. Many of these are derived from statements of varying taxonomic treatments mentioned in notes in species accounts in the 7th edition. Each member has accepted primary responsibility for certain groups of birds or for particular distributional or other matters. When a suggestion for a change in taxonomic, nomenclatural, or distributional status is published, the member with responsibility for the affected group studies the situation and prepares a proposal for (or against) change. The Committee also considers proposals or suggestions by nonmembers if accompanied by adequate justification or evidence. Proposals, with recommendations, are circulated among the Committee and a period of discussion ensues, mainly by e-mail. Advice may be solicited from colleagues who are not members of the Committee. Eventually, a vote is taken. If approved, the proposal becomes an item for the next Supplement. If the proposal is not accepted, it returns to the agenda to await additional evidence. The Committee attempts to meet annually at the AOU meeting. Members of the Committee are also working toward a future edition of the Check-list that will include statements of geographic variation and a treatment at the subspecific level.

Changes in this Supplement fall into eight categories: (1) three species are added to the main list because of new distributional information (Ardeola bacchus, Milvus migrans, Emberiza elegans); (2) 11 species are added to the list because of splitting of species previously on the list (Sula granti, Centrocercus minimus, Picoides arizonae, Dendroica subita, D. delicata, Spindalis nigricephala, S. dominicensis, S. portoricensis, Icterus prosthemelas, Lonchura cantans, and L. atricapilla); (3) four species are changed (Caracara cheriway, Glaucidium costaricanum, Myrmotherula pacifica, Pica hudsonia) and one added (Caracara lutosa) by splits from now-extralimital forms; (4) four scientific names of species are changed because of generic reallocation (Ibycter americanus, Stercorarius skua, S. maccormicki, Molothrus oryzivorus); (5) one specific name is changed for nomenclatural reasons (Baeolophus ridgwayi); (6) the spelling of five species names is changed to make them gramatically correct relative to the generic name (Jacamerops aureus, Poecile atricapilla, P. hudsonica, P. cincta, Buarremon brunneinucha); (7) one English name is changed to conform to worldwide use (Long-tailed Duck), one is changed by removing an unneeded modifier (White Tern), and five are changed because of species splits (Greater Sage-Grouse, Western Spindalis, Greater Antillean Oriole, Indian Silverbill, Tricolored Munia); and (8) seven species are added to the Appendix (Oceanodroma monorhis, Circus aeruginosus, Larus genei, L. novaehollandiae, Phaethornis yaruqui, Tachycineta albiventer, Oryzoborus angolensis). The 15 additions to the main list bring the number of species recognized as occurring in the Check-list area (main list) to 2,023. This Supplement also makes some technical nomenclatural and spelling changes that were not included with errata in the Notice from the Committee in Auk 116:282–283, 1999. Literature that provides the basis for the Committee's decisions is cited at the end of the Supplement, and citations not already in the Literature Cited of the 7th edition become additions to it. An updated list of species known from the Check-list area may be accessed from <> on the internet.

The following changes to the 7th edition (page numbers refer thereto) result from the Committee's actions:

pp. xvii-liv. In the list of bird species known from the Check-list area, change 2,008 to 2,023. In the list, insert the following species in the proper position as indicated by the text of this Supplement:

Sula granti Nazca Booby.

Ardeola bacchus Chinese Pond-Heron.

Milvus migrans Black Kite.

Caracara lutosa Guadalupe Caracara.

Centrocercus minimus Gunnison Sage-Grouse.

Glaucidium costaricanum Costa Rican Pygmy-Owl.

Picoides arizonae Arizona Woodpecker.

Myrmotherula pacifica Pacific Antwren.

Dendroica subita Barbuda Warbler.

Dendroica delicata St. Lucia Warbler.

Spindalis nigricephala Jamaican Spindalis.

Spindalis dominicensis Hispaniolan Spindalis.

Spindalis portoricensis Puerto Rican Spindalis.

Emberiza elegans Yellow-throated Bunting.

Icterus prosthemelas Black-cowled Oriole.

Lonchura cantans African Silverbill (I).

Lonchura atricapilla Chestnut Munia (I).

Change the following English names:

Clangula hyemalis Long-tailed Duck.

Centrocercus urophasianus Greater Sage-Grouse.

Gygis alba White Tern.

Spindalis zena Western Spindalis.

Icterus dominicensis Greater Antillean Oriole.

Lonchura malabarica Indian Silverbill (I).

Lonchura malacca Tricolored Munia (I).

Change the following scientific names, with no change in English names:

Daptrius americanus to Ibycter americanus

Caracara plancus to Caracara cheriway

Catharacta skua to Stercorarius skua

Catharacta maccormicki to Stercorarius maccormicki

Jacamerops aurea to Jacamerops aureus

Pica pica to Pica hudsonia

Poecile atricapillus to Poecile atricapilla

Poecile hudsonicus to Poecile hudsonica

Poecile cinctus to Poecile cincta

Baeolophus griseus to Baeolophus ridgwayi

Buarremon brunneinuchus to Buarremon brunneinucha

Scaphidura oryzivora to Molothrus oryzivorus

Delete the following names:

Glaucidium jardinii Andean Pygmy-Owl.

Myrmotherula surinamensis Streaked Antwren.

Move Icterus bullockii to position following I. pustulatus

p. 28. Sula granti is recognized as a species distinct from S. dactylatra, as proposed by Pitman and Jehl (1998), on the basis of differences in bill color, size and proportions, some color characters in both juvenal and definitive plumages, preferred nesting habitat, and pelagic nonbreeding ranges. Modify the breeding distribution of Sula dactylatra by removing the phrase “and in the Galapagos” and the word “Ecuador.” Add to the Notes under S. dactylatra: Some old sight reports may pertain to S. granti (e.g. Roberson 1998). Insert the following after the account for S. dactylatra:

Sula granti Rothschild. Nazca Booby

Sula granti Rothschild, 1902, Bull. Brit. Ornithol. Club 13: 7. (Galapagos Archipelago = Culpepper Island, fide Hartert, Nov. Zool. 32: 274, 1925.)


Pelagic waters; nests on cliffs on islands.


Breeds in the eastern Pacific on the Galapagos Islands, Isla La Plata, Ecuador, and Malpelo Island off Colombia, and in small numbers on Clipperton Island and the Revillagigedos.

Ranges at sea off Middle America in the southern Gulf of California and from Colima, Mexico, to Ecuador.


Formerly considered a subspecies of S. dactylatra, but separated by Pitman and Jehl (1998). See comments under S. dactylatra.

p. 32. In the Notes under the genus Phalacrocorax, the name Hypoleucus should be Hypoleucos.

p. 44. Before the genus Butorides, insert:

Genus ARDEOLA Boie

Ardeola Boie, 1822, Isis von Oken, col. 559. Type, by monotypy, Ardea ralloides Scopoli.

Ardeola bacchus (Bonaparte). Chinese Pond-Heron

Buphus bacchus Bonaparte, 1855, Consp. Gen. Avium, 2:127. (Malay Peninsula.)


Marshland, rice fields, riverbanks, mangroves, tidepools, and margins of fish ponds.


Breeds from central Manchuria and Inner Mongolia south through eastern China and Taiwan to Assam, northern Indochina, and Hainan.

Winters in the southern part of the breeding range and to Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, Myanmar (Burma), Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Sulawesi.

Wanders to Siberia, Korea, Japan, and Sri Lanka.

Accidental on St. Paul Island, Pribilofs, Alaska, 4–9 August 1996 (Gibson and Kessel 1997, Hoyer and Smith 1997).

p. 81. The Committee was petitioned by a group of biologists from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Alaska to change the English name of Clangula hyemalis from Oldsquaw to Long-tailed Duck, the name used for the species outside of North America. The basis for the petition was that the species is declining in numbers in Alaska, and conservation management plans require the help and cooperation of Native Americans. The biologists were concerned that the name Oldsquaw would offend the Native Americans. Requests to change the name had been made to the Committee in past years by some who consider the word “squaw” to be offensive. The Committee declines to consider political correctness alone in changing long-standing English names of birds but is willing in this instance to adopt an alternative name that is in use in much of the world.

Change English name of Clangula hyemalis from Oldsquaw to Long-tailed Duck, to conform with English usage in other parts of the world. Change Notes to read: Formerly known as Oldsquaw in North America.

p. 91. After Ictinia plumbea, insert the following account:

Genus MILVUS Lacépède, 1799

Milvus Lacépède, 1799, Tab. Mamm. Ois., p. 4. Type, by tautonomy, Falco milvus Linnaeus.

Milvus migrans (Boddaert). Black Kite

Falco migrans Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 28. Based on “Le Milan noir” of Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pl. 472. (France.)


Riparian areas, open woodland, forest edge, coastal wetlands, farmland, garbage dumps, and cities.


Breeds (migrans group) in Eurasia from Finland to western Siberia and south to islands in the Mediterranean Sea and northwestern Africa, the Near East and Arabia, east through India and south to Sri Lanka and southwestern China and south through southeast Asia to Australia, and in much of Africa; and (lineatus group) in eastern Siberia and Japan south through China to northern India, Burma, and the Ryukyu Islands.

Winters (migrans group) from southern Eurasia to southern Africa and southern Australia; and (lineatus group) from southern Iraq to China and Japan, south to southern India, Sri Lanka, and southeast Asia.

Accidental (group unknown) in the Mariana Islands, and (lineatus group) in Hawaii on Sand Island, Midway, 1994–1995 (R. L. Pyle pers. comm.) and 1998 (Field Notes, 1998, pp. 147, 261, 272). Photographs documenting both Midway occurrences are on file in the Hawaii Rare Bird Documentary Photograph File at the B. P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.


Stresemann and Amadon in Mayr and Cottrell (1979) and Sibley and Monroe (1990) considered the two groups to be allospecies, M. migrans (Boddaert, 1783) [Black Kite] and M. lineatus (Gray, 1831) [Black-eared Kite]. Sibley and Monroe (1993:40) further separated the birds in Arabia and eastern and southern Africa as a group aegyptius (Gmelin, 1788) [Yellow-billed Kite] within M. migrans.

p. 105. In the Notes under Family Falconidae, change Griffiths (1994) to Griffiths (1994a).

p. 106. The Red-throated Caracara is moved from the genus Daptrius to the genus Ibycter. Members of these genera differ in syringeal morphology and mitochondrial DNA (Griffiths 1994b, 1999) and in ecology (Brown and Amadon 1968). The genetic studies show that Daptrius is paraphyletic if americanus is included. Replace the heading and citation for Genus Daptrius with:

Genus IBYCTER Vieillot

Ibycter Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 22. Type, by monotypy, Falco americanus Boddaert.

Change the species heading from Daptrius americanus (Boddaert) to Ibycter americanus (Boddaert). Change the Notes at the end of the species account to read: Formerly placed in the genus Daptrius Vieillot, 1816, but separated on the suggestions of Brown and Amadon (1968) and Griffiths (1994b, 1999).

p. 106. The three groups in Caracara plancus are recognized as distinct species following an analysis of plumage, morphology, and reported hybridization by Dove and Banks (1999). Replace the account for now extralimital C. plancus with the following two accounts:

Caracara cheriway (Jacquin). Crested Caracara.

Falco cheriway Jacquin, 1784, Beytr. Gesch. Vögel., p. 17, pl. 4. (Aruba.)


Arid Lowland Scrub, Arid Montane Scrub, Low Seasonally Wet Grassland, Second-growth Scrub, lowland pine savanna (0–3,000 m; Tropical to Temperate zones).


As cheriway group in plancus account.


Formerly combined with the South American Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777) [Southern Caracara] and C. lutosus as Crested Caracara, but separated by Dove and Banks (1999).

Caracara lutosa (Ridgway). Guadalupe Caracara

Polyborus lutosus Ridgway, 1876, Bull. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr. 1:459. (Guadalupe Island, Lower California.)


Arid Lowland Scrub.


as lutosa group in plancus account.


See notes under C. cheriway.

p. 119. On the basis of genetic differences (Kahn et al. 1999, Oyler-McCance et al. 1999) and differences in size (Hupp and Braun 1991), courtship behavior (calls, strut rate; Young et al. 1994), tail pattern, and modified body plumes (Young et al. 2000), the Gunnison Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus minimus, is recognized as a species distinct from the Greater Sage-Grouse, C. urophasianus. Change the English name of C. urophasianus to Greater Sage-Grouse and modify the Distribution and Notes sections of the account for C. urophasianus as follows:


Resident locally (formerly more widespread) in eastern (Mono County) and northeastern California, and from eastern Oregon, central Washington, southeastern Alberta, southwestern Saskatchewan, Montana, and southwestern North Dakota south to central Nevada, northern Utah, Wyoming, northern Colorado, and southwestern South Dakota. Formerly north to southern British Columbia (Okanagan Valley) and east to western Nebraska.


Formerly included C. minimus and known as the Sage Grouse.

Insert the following new account for C. minimus:

Centrocercus minimus Bradbury and Vehrencamp. Gunnison Sage-Grouse

Centrocercus minimus Bradbury and Vehrencamp, 1998, Principles of Animal Communication, cover, iv, 770. (Gunnison, Colorado.)


Sagebrush, sagebrush dominated shrub-steppe.


Resident locally in the Gunnison Basin and southwestern Colorado south of the Eagle and Colorado rivers, and in adjacent southeastern Utah east of the Colorado River. Formerly widespread but discontinuous in southern Colorado and extreme eastern Utah. Early records of sage-grouse from northeastern Arizona, southwestern Kansas, northern New Mexico, and western Oklahoma are presumed to have been of this species rather than C. urophasianus (Young et al. 2000).


Formerly considered part of C. urophasianus but shown to be distinct by Hupp and Braun (1991), Young et al. (1994), Kahn et al. (1999), Oyler-McCance et al. (1999), and Young et al. (2000).

p. 120. In the citation for Lagopus mutus, change the date of publication to 1781 (fide Tyrberg 1998).

p. 181. A series of studies on molecular genetics (Cohen et al. 1997, Andersson 1999, Braun and Brumfield 1998) have shown that relationships of the skuas and jaegers are best expressed by placing all of the species in a single genus. This supports earlier suggestions based on studies of behavior (Andersson 1973) and parasite faunas (Cohen et al. 1997). The genus Catharacta is merged into the genus Stercorarius. Delete the words “genera and” from the Notes under Subfamily Stercorariinae. Move the generic heading for the genus Stercorarius on p. 182 to replace the generic name Catharacta Brünnich, and add the citations for Catharacta Brünnich and Megalestris Bonaparte to the synonymy of Stercorarius in the order Stercorarius, Catharacta, Coprotheres, Megalestris. Under the generic heading and synonymy, insert:


We follow Andersson (1999) in merging Catharacta into Stercorarius on the basis of studies of molecular genetics and reconsideration of other data.

Replace the species heading Catharacta skua Brünnich with Stercorarius skua (Brünnich). Throughout the account, change group name antarctica to antarcticus and replace the generic initial C. with S.

p. 182. Replace the species heading Catharacta maccormicki (Saunders) with Stercorarius maccormicki Saunders. In the Notes for that species, change the generic initial C. to S. and add: Formerly placed in the genus Catharacta.

In the Notes under Stercorarius pomarinus, delete “(Catharacta)” and add: Braun and Brumfield (1998) suggested that pomarinus be placed in the monotypic genus Coprotheres, between Catharacta and Stercorarius. The complex phylogenetic relationships are best expressed by considering all species in a single genus (Andersson 1999).

p. 207. Change the English name of Gygis alba, Common White-Tern, to White Tern.

pp. 257–258. The distribution of Bubo virginianus is restated to recognize existence of a gap in Central America (Olson 1997). Modify the paragraph as follows:


Breeds from…and Newfoundland south to Honduras, rarely in Guatemala and El Salvador, and perhaps in north-central Nicaragua, and from northern Colombia and Venezuela south to Tierra del Fuego (except for most of Amazonia). Absent from the West Indies, most other islands, and apparently much of Central America.

p. 259. Pygmy-owls in Costa Rica and Panama previously assigned to Glaucidium jardinii are recognized as a distinct species, G. costaricanum, following Robbins and Stiles (1999). Vocalizations and biochemical studies indicate a closer relationship to members of the G. gnoma complex than to G. jardinii (König 1991, Heidrich et al. 1995, Robbins and Stiles 1999). However, G. costaricanum is separated from G. gnoma on the basis of differences in plumage color, morphology, voice, habitat, and mtDNA (Robbins and Stiles 1999). Replace the account for G. jardinii, now extralimital, with the following:

Glaucidium costaricanum L. Kelso. Costa Rican Pygmy-Owl

Glaucidium jardinii costaricanum L. Kelso, 1937, Auk 54:304. (Costa Rica.)


Montane Evergreen Forest (2000–3400 m; Subtropical and Temperate zones).


Resident in the mountains of central Costa Rica south and east to western Panama (Chiriquí and Veraguas).


Formerly considered a subspecies of G. jardinii (Bonaparte, 1855) [Andean Pygmy-Owl], but shown to be more closely allied to the G. gnoma complex (Robbins and Stiles 1999).

p. 292. Place a dagger, to indicate extinct status, before the name Chlorostilbon bracei.

p. 328. Change the specific name of the Great Jacamar to aureus, to agree in gender with the masculine generic name Jacamerops.

p. 340. Picoides arizonae is split from the disjunct P. stricklandi on the basis of differences in morphology, behavior, and habitat (Davis 1965, Ligon 1968, Johnson et al. 1999). Insert the following account before that of P. stricklandi:

Picoides arizonae (Hargitt). Arizona Woodpecker

Picus arizonae Hargitt, 1886, Ibis, p. 115. (Santa Rita Mts., Arizona.)


Oak and pine-oak woodland and riparian vegetation (1,200–2,400 m; upper Subtropical zone).


That of the arizonae group in 7th ed. account of P. stricklandi.


Often considered conspecific with P. stricklandi (Davis 1965, Short 1982), but see Ligon (1968) and Johnson et al. (1999). Also called Brown-backed Woodpecker, but that name should be restricted to the African Dendrocopos obsoletus (Wagler, 1829).

In Picoides stricklandi account, change habitat to read “Coniferous forest (2,500–4,100 m; Temperate Zone).” Remove arizonae group from Distribution. Change Notes to read: “See comments under P. arizonae.”

p. 364. Myrmotherula pacifica is separated as a species distinct from M. surinamensis, now extralimital, on the basis of differences in vocalizations and in color patterns of females (Isler et al. 1999). Replace the account of M. surinamensis with the following:

Myrmotherula pacifica Hellmayr. Pacific Antwren

Myrmotherula surinamensis pacifica Hellmayr, 1911, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 1159 (Buenaventura, Chocó, [depto. Valle], W. Colombia.)


River-edge Forest, Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest Edge, Secondary Forest (0–600 m; Tropical zone).


Resident from Panama (entire Caribbean slope, and Pacific drainage west to western Panamá province) south on the west side of the Andes to southwestern Ecuador (northwestern Azuay), and east in the northern Colombian lowlands to the Río Magdalena Valley (Santander).


Formely considered a subspecies of Myrmotherula surinamensis (Gmelin, 1788) [Streaked Antwren] but separated by Isler et al. (1999). The form multostriata Sclater, 1858 [Amazonian Streaked-Antwren] of southern and western Amazonia also is split from M. surinamensis [Guianan Streaked-Antwren] of northeastern Amazonia by those authors.

p. 368. In the citation for the genus Myrmornis, the page number 180 should be 188.

p. 448. North American Pica hudsonia is treated as a species distinct from Old World P. pica, which becomes extralimital, on the basis of a number of morphologic, behavioral, and genetic characters (Birkhead 1991, Enggist-Dublin and Birkhead 1992, Zink et al. 1995).

Replace P. pica account with account of P. hudsonia.

Pica hudsonia (Sabine). Black-billed Magpie

Corvus hudsonius Sabine, 1823, in Franklin, Narr. Journ. Polar Sea, 1823, p. 671. (Cumberland House, Hudson Bay [=Cumberland House, Saskatchewan].)


Open country with scattered trees, riparian and open woodland, forest edge, and farmlands.


Resident from south-coastal Alaska (west to the Alaska Peninsula and Shumagin Islands), southern Yukon, northern Alberta, central Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, extreme southwestern Ontario, and northern Minnesota south to northeastern and east-central California (to Inyo County), south-central Nevada, Utah, extreme northeastern Arizona (Apache County, formerly more widespread), northern New Mexico, western (casually northeastern) Oklahoma, central Kansas, and Nebraska (except southeastern). Absent from coastal areas and regions from southeastern Alaska southward and west of the Cascade range and Sierra Nevada.

Wanders as in paragraph at top of p. 449.


Formerly considered a subspecies of Old World Pica pica (Linnaeus, 1758) [Eurasian Magpie], but separated on the basis of differences summarized by Birkhead (1991) and Enggist-Dublin and Birkhead (1992). Vocal and behavioral data suggest that P. hudsonia is more closely related to P. nuttalli than to P. pica. All taxa in Pica were considered conspecific by Phillips (1986).

p. 449. Change Notes for P. nuttalli to read: “See comments under P. hudsonia, and Verbeek (1972).”

p. 455. Add to the distribution of Progne cryptoleuca a statement “Accidental in Florida (Key West, 9 May 1895).” Add to the Notes: Other Florida records mentioned in earlier Check-lists are of P. subis (Banks 2000).

pp. 461–462. In the headings for Petrochelidon pyrrhonota and P. fulva, the name Vieillot should be in parentheses, (Vieillot).

In the account of Petrochelidon fulva, the group name pelodoma should be changed to pallida because the latter is not preoccupied by the former in the genus Petrochelidon. The sentence to that effect should be deleted from the Notes. In the Notes, the group name “P. pelodoma Brooke, 1974” should be changed to “P. pallida Nelson, 1902.” P. rufocollaris Peale, 1848, should be P. rufocollaris (Peale, 1848).

p. 463. In the Notes at the top of the page, for Hirundo rustica, change H. dumicola to H. domicola.

pp. 463–465. The generic name Poecile is feminine, and adjectival species names must agree in gender. Change the specific names atricapillus, hudsonicus, and cinctus to atricapilla, hudsonica, and cincta. In the Notes under P. atricapilla, P. montanus becomes P. montana.

p. 466. Change Baeolophus griseus (Ridgway) to Baeolophus ridgwayi (Richmond). The name griseus is permanently invalidated because it was replaced as a junior secondary homonym before 1961 (ICZN 1999, Art. 59.3).

p. 472. In the Notes under Campylorhynchus zonatus, at the top of the page, the citation for C. fasciatus should be (Swainson, 1838). In the Notes under Campylorhynchus chiapensis, the citation for C. griseus should be (Swainson, 1838).

p. 517. In the citation for Oreoscoptes montanus, change C. K. Townsend to J. K. Townsend.

p. 546. On the basis of genetic differences, combined with differences in plumage and morphology and probably song (Curson et al. 1994, Lovette et al. 1998, Lovette and Bermingham 1999), Dendroica adelaidae is divided into three species. In the account for D. adelaidae, change Distribution to read: Resident on Puerto Rico (including Vieques Island). Change Notes to: Formerly included D. subita and D. delicata, now considered distinct species (Lovette et al. 1998, Lovette and Bermingham 1999). Lowery and Monroe in Paynter (1968) proposed that D. adelaidae (including subita and delicata) and D. graciae were each other's closest relatives, but mitochondrial DNA data (Lovette and Bermingham 1999) do not support this relationship.

Insert the following two accounts after Dendroica adelaidae:

Dendroica subita Riley. Barbuda Warbler

Dendroica subita Riley, 1904, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 47: 289. (Barbuda.)


Arid Lowland Scrub, Riparian Thickets.


Resident on Barbuda in the Lesser Antilles.


See comments under D. adelaidae.

Dendroica delicata Ridgway. St. Lucia Warbler

Dendroica adelaidae delicata Ridgway, 1883, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 5 (1882): 525. (St. Lucia.)


Arid Lowland Scrub, Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest (0–700 m).


Resident on St. Lucia in the Lesser Antilles.


See comments under D. adelaidae.

p. 581. Spindalis zena is divided into four species, following suggestions by Garrido et al. (1997), based on differences in mensural data, coloration, body mass, and vocalizations. This treatment has been followed by Raffaele et al. (1998). In the citation for the genus Spindalis, delete “=Fringilla zena Linnaeus.” Insert the following after the heading and citation for the genus Spindalis:


To avoid long hyphenated compound English names, we revert to the English group name Spindalis, used (e.g. Bond 1936) before the populations were merged (without comment) by Bond (1947).

Change the English name of Spindalis zena to Western Spindalis. Change the Distribution of S. zena to: Resident in the Bahama Islands (Grand Bahama, Great Abaco, Little Abaco, and Green Turtle Cay in the northern Bahamas, from the Berry Islands south to Great Inagua in the southern Bahamas), Providenciales in the Turks and Caicos, Cuba (including the Isle of Pines and numerous keys), Grand Cayman Island, and Cozumel Island off Quintana Roo, Mexico. Remove “[zena group]” from sentence beginning “Ranges …”

Change Notes under S. zena to read: Formerly included S. nigricephala, S. dominicensis, and S. portoricensis, with the English name Stripe-headed Tanager, but the complex is treated as four allospecies of a superspecies following Garrido et al. (1997).

After the account of Spindalis zena, insert the following three accounts:

Spindalis nigricephala (Jameson). Jamaican Spindalis

Tanagra nigricephala Jameson, 1835, Edinburgh New Philos. Journ. 19: 213. (Jamaica.)


Tropical Montane Forest, Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest, Secondary Forest (0–1,800 m).


Resident on Jamaica.


Formerly considered part of S. zena, but separated by Garrido et al. (1997).

Spindalis dominicensis (Bryant). Hispaniolan Spindalis

Tanagra dominicensis Bryant, 1867, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 11: 92. (southeast Haiti.)


Tropical Montane Forest, Pine Forest, Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest, Secondary Forest (0–2,300 m).


Resident on the island of Hispaniola, and on Gonave Island.


Formerly considered part of S. zena, but separated by Garrido et al. (1997).

Spindalis portoricensis (Bryant). Puerto Rican Spindalis

Tanagra portoricensis Bryant, 1866, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 10:252. (Puerto Rico.)


Tropical Montane Forest, Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest, Secondary Forest (0–1,050 m).


Resident on Puerto Rico.


Formerly considered part of S. zena, but separated by Garrido et al. (1997).

p. 601. Change Buarremon brunneinuchus to Buarremon brunneinucha; this is a noun used in apposition, and its gender does not change. In the Notes under that species, B. apertus Wetmore, 1942 should be B. apertus (Wetmore, 1942).

p. 629, after the account for Emberiza rustica, insert:

Emberiza elegans Temminck. Yellow-throated Bunting

Emberiza elegans Temminck, 1835, Planches Color., livr. 98, pl. 583, fig. 1. (Japan.)


Open dry deciduous forest on hills and ridges.


Breeds from southern Siberia, Manchuria, and northern Korea south to southern China.

Winters from eastern China, southern Korea, and Japan south to southern China and Burma.

Accidental in Alaska (Attu, in the Aleutian Islands, 25 May 1998; Sykes 1998).

p. 649. Scaphidura is merged into Molothrus on the basis of several genetic studies (Lanyon 1994, Johnson and Lanyon 1999, Lanyon and Omland 1999). Delete the heading for the genus Scaphidura and the Notes under it. Move the citations for the generic names Scaphidura and Psomocolax to proper chronological positions under the genus Molothrus. Change the species heading Scaphidura oryzivora (Gmelin) to Molothrus oryzivorus (Gmelin).

Change the Notes after the species account to read: Also known as Rice Grackle. Formerly placed in the monotypic genus Scaphidura, but shown by genetic data (Johnson and Lanyon 1999, Lanyon and Omland 1999) to be the sister species to the other species of Molothrus in our area and to be more closely related to them than to extralimital M. rufoaxillaris Cassin.

p. 649. Icterus prosthemelas is recognized as a species distinct from I. dominicensis and is moved to a position next to I. spurius on the basis of genetic data presented by Omland et al. (1999). The analysis by Omland et al. (1999) indicates that the I. dominicensis complex may consist of up to four species. However, the exclusion of I. d. dominicensis from part of the genetic data set, and the lack of an analysis of vocal and plumage differences among the four island taxa, make it impossible to determine at this time how many biological species should be recognized. Replace the account for I. dominicensis with the following:

Icterus dominicensis (Linnaeus). Greater Antillean Oriole

The citation for the species is unchanged.


Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest Edge, Secondary Forest (0–1,000 m; Tropical Zone).


Resident [dominicensis group] on Hispaniola; [portoricensis group] on Puerto Rico; [northropi group] on Andros, Great Abaco, and Little Abaco in the northern Bahamas; and [melanopsis group] on Cuba and the Isle of Pines.


Groups: I. dominicensis (Linnaeus, 1766) [Hispaniolan Oriole]; I. portoricensis Bryant, 1866 [Puerto Rican Oriole]; I. northropi Allen, 1890 [Bahaman Oriole]; I. melanopsis (Wagler, 1829) [Cuban Oriole]. Genetic analysis by Omland et al. (1999) suggests that some or all of the groups may merit specific rank, but further study is needed to clarify their relationships.

p. 650. Insert the following new account before the account for Icterus spurius:

Icterus prosthemelas (Strickland). Black-cowled Oriole

Xanthornus prosthemelas Strickland, 1850, in Jardine's Contrib. Ornith., 2, p. 120, pl. 62. (Guatemala.)


Tropical Lowland Evergreen Forest Edge, Secondary Forest (0–1,200 m; Tropical Zone).


Resident from southern Veracruz, northern Oaxaca, Tabasco, Chiapas, and the Yucatan Peninsula south on the Caribbean slope of Central America to extreme western Panama (western Bocas del Toro).


Icterus prosthemelas was considered a distinct species until Bond (1947) included it in I. dominicensis, without comment but apparently on the basis of its similarity in plumage to I. d. northropi. Subsequently treated as a subspecies of I. dominicensis but shown by genetic analysis (Omland et al. 1999) to be more closely related to I. spurius.

p. 653. So that the sequence of species more closely reflects relationships as determined by molecular genetics (Freeman and Zink 1995, Omland et al. 1999), move the account of Icterus bullockii from p. 655 to a position following the account of I. pustulatus. Change the Notes under I. bullockii to read: See notes under I. galbula and I. abeillei, with which this species was formerly combined.

p. 682. Lonchura cantans, African Silverbill, is separated as a species distinct from L. malabarica, which becomes Indian Silverbill, following Restall (1996).

Remove “=Loxia malabarica Linnaeus” from citation of Euodice in synonymy of Lonchura.

Change English name of Lonchura malabarica to Indian Silverbill. Replace the account for L. malabarica with the following:


Dry, grassy brush and scrub.


Resident from eastern Saudi Arabia and Oman east to Bangladesh and eastern India, and south to Sri Lanka.

Introduced and established on Puerto Rico; reported on St. Croix, Virgin Islands.


Formerly included L. cantans, now considered a distinct species (Harrison 1964, Kakizawa and Watada 1985, Restall 1996), with the name Warbling Silverbill. Also known as White-throated Silverbill or White-throated Munia.

After the account for Lonchura malabarica, insert the following new account:

Lonchura cantans (Gmelin). African Silverbill

Loxia cantans Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat. 1(2): 859. (Africa. Restricted to Dakar, Senegal, by Sclater and Mackworth-Praed, 1918, Ibis, p. 440.)


Savanna, arid scrub and brush, grassland, and around human habitation.


Resident in Africa south of the Sahara and north of the equatorial Congo Basin from Senegal east to Oman on the Arabian Peninsula and south in eastern Africa to northern Tanzania.

Introduced and established in the Hawaiian Islands (originally on Hawaii, recently spreading to Maui, Lanai, and Molokai, with sight reports from Kauai, Oahu, and Kahoolawe). A pair successfully bred on Merritt Island, Florida, in 1965 (1965, Aud. Field Notes 19: 537), but the species did not become established.


Formerly included with Lonchura malabarica and together called Warbling Silverbill. Hawaiian records were erroneously assigned to L. malabarica in 7th edition, but see Falkenmayer (1988).

p. 683. Lonchura atricapilla is recognized as a species distinct from L. malacca, with the latter species called Tricolored Munia, following Restall (1995). Change the English name of Lonchura malacca to Tricolored Munia and replace the account with the following:


Wet and marshy areas with long grasses; rice fields.


Resident in central and southern India and Sri Lanka.

Introduced and established in Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Hawaiian Islands (Oahu), Venezuela, and Japan. Reportedly introduced or observed in Cuba, Hispaniola, and Martinique (Raffaele et al. 1998), but in the absence of voucher specimens some of these reports may be of L. atricapilla. Reported breeding on Merritt Island, Florida (1965, Aud. Field Notes 19: 537), but this record also may refer to L. atricapilla.


Formerly included L. atricapilla and known as Chestnut Mannikin, but separated by Restall (1995).

Insert after the account of L. malacca:

Lonchura atricapilla (Vieillot). Chestnut Munia

Loxia atricapilla Vieillot, 1807, Ois. Chant., p. 84, pl. 53. (Les Grandes-Indes, restricted to Lower Bengal by Robinson and Kloss, 1924, Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam 5: 362.)


Grassy areas, marshes; rice fields.


Resident in northern and eastern India, Nepal, Southeast Asia, southern China, Hainan, and Taiwan south to Sri Lanka, the Greater Sunda Islands, and the Philippines.

Introduced and established in Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Kauai), Guam, and Palau (Pratt et al. 1987, as L. malacca; see Restall 1996).


Formerly merged with L. malacca and known as Chestnut Mannikin, but separated by Restall (1995). See notes and distribution statement under L. malacca.

p. 688. Oceanodroma monorhis is added to the Appendix. Before the account for Oceanodroma hornbyi, insert:

Oceanodroma monorhis (Swinhoe). Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel

Thalassidroma monorhis Swinhoe, 1867, Ibis, p. 386. (near Amoy, China.)

This species, which breeds in the North Pacific and ranges in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea, was reported in the western North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Hatteras, North Carolina, 8 August 1998 (photographs; O'Brien et al. 1999) and perhaps on previous occasions (Brinkley 1995). It has been reported occasionally (since 1983) in the eastern North Atlantic (Cubitt 1995). This species is not well known, and identification from photographs is considered tenuous.

p. 690. Circus aeruginosus is added to the Appendix. After the account for Aythya nyroca, insert:

Circus aeruginosus (Linnaeus). Western Marsh-Harrier

Falco aeruginosus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 91. (Europe = Sweden.)

This species of Eurasia and northern Africa was reportedly seen at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, Accomack County, Virginia, on 4 December 1994. Photographs were reportedly obtained but were not published (Shedd et al. 1998).

p. 692. Change Catharacta chilensis (Bonaparte) to Stercorarius chilensis Bonaparte.

p. 692. Larus genei is added to the Appendix. After the account for Stercorarius chilensis, insert:

Larus genei Brème. Slender-billed Gull

Larus Genei Brème, 1839, Rev. Zool., p. 321. (Sardinia.)

This species of the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean coasts was reportedly seen on Antigua, 24 April 1976 (Holland and Williams 1978, Raffaele et al. 1998:451).

p. 692. Larus novaehollandiae is added to Appendix, after Larus genei.

Larus novaehollandiae Stevens. Silver Gull

Larus Novae-Hollandiae Stevens, 1826, in Shaw's General Zoology 13, pt. 1, p. 196. (New South Wales.)

This Southern Hemisphere species, also known as Red-billed Gull, is frequently kept in zoos in the United States. A specimen (August 1947) from the mouth of the Genessee River in New York (Beardslee and Mitchell 1965) was thought to be a wanderer but is now considered to have been an escapee (Bull 1974). A bird photographed (NAS Field Notes 51:33, 1997) in Salem County, New Jersey, in autumn 1996, was assumed to have escaped from captivity.

p. 694. Phaethornis yaruqui is added to the Appendix. Insert between Coccyzus lansbergi and Anthracothorax viridigula:

Phaethornis yaruqui (Bourcier). White-whiskered Hermit

Trochilus Yaruqui Bourcier, 1851, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 32:187. (Vicinity of Yaruqui, Ecuador.)

This species of the Chocó region of western Colombia and northwestern Ecuador was reported at Manané, Darién, Panama, 10 July 1996 (Seutin 1998).

p. 696. Tachycineta albiventer is added to the Appendix. Insert between Melanocorypha calandra and Parus major:

Tachycineta albiventer (Boddaert). White-winged Swallow

Hirundo albiventer Boddaert, 1783, Table Planches Enlum., p. 32. Based on Daubenton, Planches Enlum., pl. 546. (Cayenne.)

This species, widespread in tropical South America, was reported from the Tuira River downstream from Unión Chocó, Darién, Panama, 6 July 1996 (Seutin 1998). There is also a sight report of this species at Schoelcher, Martinique, 10 August 1993 (Feldmann et al. 1999).

p. 698. Oryzoborus angolensis is added to the Appendix. Insert before Icterus nigrogularis:

Oryzoborus angolensis (Linnaeus). Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch

Loxia angolensis Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1:303. Based on “The Black Gros-Beak” Edwards, Glean. Nat. Hist. 3, p. 296, pl. 352. (Angola, error, eastern Brazil suggested by Hellmayr, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13:19.)

Caged birds of this South American species escaped on Martinique and established a small wild breeding population by 1984. Breeding has been reported in 1995 and 1996 (Feldmann et al. 1999), but the population is still small and localized. Photographs have been deposited in VIREO.

pp. 705–730. In the list of French Names for North American Birds:

Change the following scientific names, retaining the French names:

Daptrius americanus to Ibycter americanus

Caracara plancus to Caracara cheriway

Catharacta skua to Stercorarius skua

Catharacta maccormicki to Stercorarius maccormicki

Jacamerops aurea to Jacamerops aureus

Pica pica to Pica hudsonia

Poecile atricapillus to Poecile atricapilla

Poecile hudsonicus to Poecile hudsonica

Poecile cinctus to Poecile cincta

Baeolophus griseus to Baeolophus ridgwayi

Buarremon brunneinuchus to Buarremon brunneinucha

Scaphidura oryzivora to Molothrus oryzivorus

Change the French name that accompanies the following scientific name:

Spindalis zena to Zéna à tête rayée

Insert the following in the appropriate places, as indicated by preceding text:

Sula granti Fou de Grant

Ardeola bacchus Crabier chinois

Milvus migrans Milan noir

Caracara lutosa Caracara de Guadalupe

Centrocercus minimus Tétras du Gunnison

Glaucidium costaricanum Chevêchette du Costa Rica

Picoides arizonae Pic d'Arizona

Myrmotherula pacifica Myrmidon du Pacifique

Dendroica subita Paruline de Barbuda

Dendroica delicata Paruline de Sainte-Lucie

Spindalis nigricephala Zéna de Jamaïque

Spindalis dominicensis Zéna d'Hispaniola

Spindalis portoricensis Zéna de Porto Rico

Emberiza elegans Bruant élégant

Icterus prosthemelas Oriole monacal

Lonchura cantans Capucin bec-d'argent

Lonchura atricapilla Capucin à tête noire

Oceanodroma monorhis Océanite de Swinhoe.

Circus aeruginosus Busard des roseaux

Larus genei Goéland railleur

Larus novaehollandiae Mouette argentée

Phaethornis yaruqui Ermite yaruqui

Tachycineta albiventer Hirondelle à ailes blanches

Oryzoborus angolensis Sporophile curio

Move Icterus bullockii to position following I. pustulatus

Delete the entries for the following:

Glaucidium jardinii

Myrmotherula surinamensis

p. 742. Replace Griffiths, C. 1994 with Griffiths, C. S. 1994a.

The Committee has discussed most agenda items that have accumulated since the 7th edition. Changes in treatment were delayed on some items with the hope that more convincing evidence would be forthcoming. Proposals considered but not yet accepted by the Committee include the following: separation of Pterodroma heraldica from P. arminjoniana; separation of Puffinus newelli from P. auricularis; separation of Numenius hudsonicus from N. phaeopus; separation of Cuculus optatus from C. saturatus; separation of the extralimital population magellanicus from Bubo virginianus; separation of Glaucidium gnoma into two or more species; division of Corvus palmarum into two species; division of Chasiempis sandwichensis into three species; removal of Troglodytes troglodytes to the genus Nannus; merger of Myadestes woahensis into M. lanaiensis; separation of Turdus graysoni from T. rufopalliatus; separation of Spizella taverneri from S. breweri; revision of generic relationships in the Emberizidae; and separation of Loxia megaplaga from L. leucoptera. Several other matters published late in 1999 have been added to the agenda for consideration in the next two years.


Michel Gosselin is serving the Committee as its authority for French names, and Normand David is serving as authority for classical languages, especially relative to gender of generic names. We thank all those who have called our attention to errors in the 7th edition and those who have helped in the preparation of this Supplement. This actually is almost everyone we have spoken with in the past two years, but we particularly thank D. G. Ainley, C. L. Braun, M. B. Braun, J. Choe, W. S. Clark, R. A. Erickson, D. D. Gibson, M. J. Iliff, M. L. Isler, P. R. Isler, J. R. Jehl, Jr., A. R. Keith, N. K. Klein, A. Knox, I. J. Lovette, S. L. Olson, M. A. Patten, R. B. Payne, J. N. Penhallurick, N. J. Pharris, H. D. Pratt, P. Pyle, R. L. Pyle, R. Restall, R. Righter, M. B. Robbins, P. W. Smith, S. O. Williams III, and J. R. Young.

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Richard C. Banks, Chairman

Carla Cicero

Jon L. Dunn

Andrew W. Kratter

Henri Ouellet (deceased)

Pamela C. Rasmussen

J. V. Remsen, Jr.

James A. Rising

Douglas F. Stotz

Preferred citation: American Ornithologists' Union. 2000. Forty-second supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 117:847–858.

Published: 1 July 2000
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