1 October 2001 Copulatory Behavior of American Avocets and Black-necked Stilts
Tex A. Sordahl
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I recorded details of 231 copulations of American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and 39 copulations of Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in northern Utah. Those data are presented as quantitative descriptions of the copulatory behavior of each species, complementing and clarifying qualitative descriptions in the literature. I observed no qualitative differences between copulatory behavior of avocets and stilts. Small quantitative differences may be related to differences in morphology and habitat preference. Across the family Recurvirostridae, the distinctive copulatory displays of avocets (Recurvirostra spp.) and stilts (Himantopus spp.) seem relatively uniform, but the behavior of the monotypic Banded Stilt (Cladorhynchus leucocephalus) of Australia appears to differ somewhat from typical recurvirostrid copulatory behavior. Attempted copulation with inanimate objects has been reported for at least 6 of the 10 recurvirostrid species.

Tex A. Sordahl "Copulatory Behavior of American Avocets and Black-necked Stilts," The Auk 118(4), 1072-1076, (1 October 2001). https://doi.org/10.1642/0004-8038(2001)118[1072:CBOAAA]2.0.CO;2
Received: 28 September 2000; Accepted: 1 June 2001; Published: 1 October 2001
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