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John G. Blake, Bette A. Loiselle
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We used capture and recapture data (1985 to 1994) to examine seasonal variation in habitat use, movements within and among habitats, and survival rates of manakins (Manacus candei, Corapipo altera, Pipra mentalis, P. pipra) in northeastern Costa Rica. Manakins were captured in young and old second-growth woodlands in the lowlands and in old-growth forest at approximately 50, 500, and 1,000 m. Manakin species differed in their use of habitats, with old-growth forest species showing large and predictable seasonal variation in capture rates. Corapipo capture rates in lowland (nonbreeding) habitats were greater during the wet season than during the dry season and were greater in old-growth forest than in second growth. Capture rates at 500 m were higher in the dry season. Pipra mentalis capture rates were high in second growth and old growth. Capture rates were higher in the wet season and were correlated with capture rates of Corapipo, indicating that at least some individual P. mentalis migrate along the elevational gradient. P. pipra capture rates were highest at 1,000 m; few individuals descended to lowlands in the wet season. Manacus capture rates were highest in young second growth and did not vary between wet and dry seasons. Use of second-growth habitats by species typically associated with old-growth forests illustrates the value of maintaining a mosaic of habitats to accommodate seasonal changes in use of habitats. Contrary to expectations based on lek mating systems, there was little evidence that movements within habitats (i.e. recapture distances) varied between sexes. Yet, recapture percentages were higher in all species for adult females than males. Adult survival rates were ∼0.75 for Manacus in young second growth, 0.62 for Corapipo in old-growth forest at 50 m and 0.66 at 500 m, and 0.70 for Pipra mentalis in lowland old-growth forest. Results support the suggestion that geographic variation in survival rates may be common in the tropics and illustrate the need for examining survival rates separately by age and sex.

John G. Blake and Bette A. Loiselle "MANAKINS (PIPRIDAE) IN SECOND-GROWTH AND OLD-GROWTH FORESTS: PATTERNS OF HABITAT USE, MOVEMENT, AND SURVIVAL," The Auk 119(1), 132-148, (1 January 2002).[0132:MPISGA]2.0.CO;2
Received: 29 June 2000; Accepted: 8 October 2001; Published: 1 January 2002
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