Usnea oreophila A.Gerlach & P.Clerc is described as new to science. This saxicolous species is characterized by a patchy, reddish, sometimes pale pigment above the jet-black basal pigmentation, branches with numerous cracks with downturned edges, numerous and sorediate fibercles, a thick and fistulose central axis, as well as by the production of a complex chemistry with squamatic acid as the main medullary compound. Usnea oreophila is currently known from high altitude grasslands above 1200 meters elevation above sea level in the states of Minas Gerais, Paraná and Santa Catarina.
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Vol. 122 • No. 1