The long-horned beetles (Cerambycidae) of Prince Edward Island are surveyed. Records of 28 species of cerambycids new to the province are provided, increasing the known fauna of this family on the island to 38 species. One species, Pogonocherus penicillatus LeConte, is removed from the list of the province's fauna. Additionally, one exotic species, Rhopalophora tenuis (Chevrolat), is reported as intercepted from merchandise imported from Mexico. This fauna is examined in relation to its distribution within the province, biogeographical components, island biogeography, the composition of the regional fauna, the impact of anthropogenic activities, and adventive species. All these provide lessons to improve our understanding of the biodiversity of the province.