Giardia intestinalis trophozoites encyst when they are exposed to bile. During encystment, events related to the inducible synthesis of a novel N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) homopolymer, occur. Within the first 6 h of encystment, mRNA for glucosamine 6-P isomerase (GPI), the first inducible enzyme unique to this pathway appears, oxygen uptake rates double from non-encysting levels, and metronidazole (MTZ) inhibits oxygen uptake. Within 12 h, GPI and its activity are detectable and OU decreases 50% from non-encysting levels; glucose's stimulation and MTZ's inhibition of oxygen uptake cease. In contrast, aspartate uptake remained constant throughout the 40 h monitored. Two genes, gpi 1 and 2 encode for GPI, but only gpi1 is expressed during encystment. Glucosamine 6-P (GlcN6P), the synthetic product of GPI, activates UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) pyrophosphorylase, a downstream enzyme, 3 to 5-fold in the direction of UDP-GlcNAc synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is epimerized to UDP-GalNAc and UDP-GalNAc is polymerized by “cyst wall synthase” (β 1 ;ra 3 GalNAc transferase) into a highly insoluble β 1,3-linked homopolymer. This GalNAc polysaccharide, the major component of cyst wall filaments, forms, in conjunction with polypeptides, the outer cyst wall of Giardia.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 48 • No. 1