We investigated growth rates, grazing rates, and prey selection of Polykrikos kofoidii when feeding on several species of red-tide and/or toxic dinoflagellates. Polykrikos kofoidii ingested all prey species used in this study, exhibiting positive growth on Lingulodinium polyedrum, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Ceratium furca, Gymnodinium catenatum, Gyrodinium impudicum, Prorocentrum micans, and the toxic dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae, but not on P. minimum. Specific growth rates of P. kofoidii increased rapidly with increasing density of L. polyedrum, S. trochoidea, C. furca, and G. catenatum before saturating between 500–2,000 ng C ml−1. Specific growth rates increased continuously when P. kofoidii was fed the other prey species. Maximum specific growth rates of P. kofoidii on G. catenatum (1.12 d−1), S. trochoidea (0.97 d−1), and L. polyedrum (0.83 d−1) were higher than those on C. furca (0.35 d−1), A. carterae (0.10 d−1), P. micans (0.06 d−1), G. impudicum (0.06 d−1), and P. minimum (−0.03 d−1). Threshold prey concentrations (where net growth = 0) were 54–288 ng C ml−1. Maximum ingestion and clearance rates of P. kofoidii on these dinoflagellates were 5–24 ng C pseudocolony−1 d−1 and 1.0–5.9 μl pseudocolony−1 h−1, respectively. Polykrikos kofoidii strongly selected L. polyedrum over S. trochoidea in prey mixtures. Polykrikos kofoidii exhibited higher maximum growth, ingestion, and clearance rates than previously reported for the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Fragilidium cf. mexicanum or the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Protoperidinium cf. divergens and P. crassipes, when grown on the same prey species. Grazing coefficients calculated by combining field data on abundances of Polykrikos spp. and co-occurring red-tide dinoflagellate prey with laboratory data on ingestion rates obtained in the present study suggest that Polykrikos spp. sometimes have a considerable grazing impact on prey populations.
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Vol. 48 • No. 3