When Hurricane Isabel reached the Virginia Coastal Plain on September 18, 2003, it was still a Category 2 hurricane, the strongest hurricane to hit Virginia for more than 70 years, and it inflicted much damage on forests. Permanent hardwood forest plots sampled just months before the storm were re-sampled after the event, revealing an overall damage rate of 14.9% of stems ≥ 2.5 cm dbh, with 7.3% of stems uprooted or secondarily crushed. Larger trees suffered more damage than smaller trees, ranging from 9.7% stems damaged for stems below 10 cm dbh (all by secondary damage) to 32.4% of stems over 60 cm dbh. In the larger size classes, red oaks (predominantly Quercus rubra, but including, Q. falcata, Q. coccinea, Q. velutina) suffered more damage than white oak (Quercus alba). Liriodendron tulipifera and Fagus grandifolia suffered even less damage, but both species lost many branches in an ice storm in 1998, and may have had smaller crowns with less wind resistance than the canopy oaks. There was no significant difference among species in amount of (secondary) damage to smaller trees, although Nyssa sylvatica had a particularly low percent damage. Overall 16% of basal area was lost, but damage was patchily distributed. No basal area was lost in nine of 27 plots, but more than 30% of basal area was lost in seven plots. Loss of large trees created numerous canopy gaps that will no doubt change the forest dynamics in years to come.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 135 • No. 3