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12 May 2007 Chronicles of Darna pallivitta (Moore 1877) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae): biology and larval morphology of a new pest in Hawaii
Walter T. Nagamine, Marc E. Epstein
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The biology of Darna pallivitta (Moore 1877), an Asian species of nettle caterpillar recently introduced to the island of Hawaii, is described from this island population. The species is highly polyphagous and has stinging caterpillars commonly associated with Limacodidae. Information on mating, oviposition, potential fecundity, duration and number of instars, cocooning, pupation, and total development time are included. The female at eclosion was found to have 573.5 ± 184.1 eggs, of which 201.5 ± 53.5 were mature. Similar to other spiny species of Limacodidae, D. pallivitta was found to not feed until second instar. The duration of immature stages were as follows: egg (7.0 d), larval (53.0 ± 6.9 d), and cocoon (19.1 ± 1.0 d). First and second instars are described for the first time for a Darna species. In a family known for heteromorphic larvae, this is the first known example of a limacodid species with elongate first instar tubercles, which later develop into spiny, urticating scoli rather than becoming smooth bodied or retaining tubercles that become hairy. Caterpillars from 6th instar or later have a delayed phenotypic expression of SD2 verrucae closely associated with spiracles on A2 to A7. Larval stages varied from 8–11 instars with a total larval duration of 45–72 d. Eleven instars equal the maximum reported for Limacodidae. Pupation took place on the fifth day after cocooning, which is a brief period compared to other members of the family. The total time from egg hatch to adult eclosion was 80.0 ± 7.1 d. Adult life span was found to be 11.0 ± 1.3 d in females and 9.7 ± 1.1 d in males.

Walter T. Nagamine and Marc E. Epstein "Chronicles of Darna pallivitta (Moore 1877) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae): biology and larval morphology of a new pest in Hawaii," The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 83(2), 120-135, (12 May 2007).
Received: 9 June 2006; Accepted: 1 December 2006; Published: 12 May 2007

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