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1 June 2012 Prolonged Incubation and Early Clutch Reduction of White Storks (Ciconia ciconia)
Andrzej Wuczyński
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Abstract

Two cases of prolonged incubation by White Storks (Ciconia ciconia) were observed in the same nest in 2009 and 2010 in southwest Poland. Incubation lasted at least 59 and 65 days, respectively; i.e., 84 and 103% longer than the average incubation period. Extended incubation was accompanied by other abnormal breeding behavior. The lack of observed copulation in either breeding season, an extremely short arrival-breeding interval, and early clutch reduction suggest the eggs were infertile. This is the first record of prolonged incubation in the Ciconiidae, and probably the first record of repeated prolonged incubation by wild birds.

Andrzej Wuczyński "Prolonged Incubation and Early Clutch Reduction of White Storks (Ciconia ciconia)," The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124(2), 362-366, (1 June 2012). https://doi.org/10.1676/11-154.1
Received: 12 September 2011; Accepted: 1 December 2011; Published: 1 June 2012
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