Translator Disclaimer
1 June 2017 Bird Predation By Praying Mantises: A Global Perspective
Martin Nyffeler, Michael R. Maxwell, J. V. Remsen
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

We review 147 incidents of the capture of small birds by mantids (order Mantodea, family Mantidae). This has been documented in 13 different countries, on all continents except Antarctica. We found records of predation on birds by 12 mantid species (in the genera Coptopteryx, Hierodula, Mantis, Miomantis, Polyspilota, Sphodromantis, Stagmatoptera, Stagmomantis, and Tenodera). Small birds in the orders Apodiformes and Passeriformes, representing 24 identified species from 14 families (Acanthizidae, Acrocephalidae, Certhiidae, Estrildidae, Maluridae, Meliphagidae, Muscicapidae, Nectariniidae, Parulidae, Phylloscopidae, Scotocercidae, Trochilidae, Tyrannidae, and Vireonidae), were found as prey. Most reports (>70% of observed incidents) are from the USA, where mantids have often been seen capturing hummingbirds attracted to food sources in gardens, i.e., hummingbird feeders or hummingbird-pollinated plants. The Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) was the species most frequently reported to be captured by mantids. Captures were reported also from Canada, Central America, and South America. In Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe, we found 29 records of small passerine birds captured by mantids. Of the birds captured, 78% were killed and eaten by the mantids, 2% succeeded in escaping on their own, and 18% were freed by humans. In North America, native and non-native mantids were engaged in bird predation. Our compilation suggests that praying mantises frequently prey on hummingbirds in gardens in North America; therefore, we suggest caution in use of large-sized mantids, particularly non-native mantids, in gardens for insect pest control.

Praying mantises (order Mantodea, family Mantidae) are globally distributed predators that are mainly insectivorous; however, they can also subdue and consume vertebrates, as reported anecdotally from nature and from captivity, including small frogs, lizards, salamanders, newts, shrews, mice, snakes, tiny soft-shelled turtles, and even once a small bat (Teale 1953, Nash 1962, Johnson 1976, Ridpath 1977, Nickle and Harper 1981, Kevan 1985, Ehrmann 1992, Ehrmann and Schmidt 1992, Jehle et al. 1996, Tomasinelli 2000, Dale 2005, Costa-Pereira et al. 2010, Mebs et al. 2016). Although predation on birds by arthropods including mantises is well documented (e.g., McCormick and Polis 1982, Miller and Gass 1985, Brooks 2012), a synthesis focusing on mantises has not been published. Here, we compile and review records of predation on birds by mantises.

Several species of large mantids (Mantis religiosa, Tenodera angustipennis, Tenodera sinensis) were released across North America as biological control agents in the 1900s (Davis 1918, Bromley 1932, Gurney 1950, Vickery and Kevan 1983). These species have become established in the eastern USA, and they show mixed effects on arthropod community structure (Fagan et al. 2002). The introduced large mantids now constitute novel potential predators for hummingbirds and other small birds.

METHODS

An extensive bibliographic search was conducted to locate all available published reports on bird predation and predation attempts by mantids using the Thomson-Reuters database, Scopus databases, SORA (Searchable Ornithological Research Archive), Google Scholar, Google Books, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Social media were also searched. The following books not included in the large data-bases were hand-searched: Bedichek (1961), Russell (1961), Bridges and Guppy (1980), Toops (1992), True (1993), Ehrmann (2002), and Shackelford et al. (2009).

We found 147 reports of predation (or predation attempts) on birds by mantids, of which fewer than one third had previously been published (Tables 12). The remaining reports were found on social media sites (e.g., Hummingbird Society, Bird Watcher's Digest, National Geographic, Audubon Society, Discovery Channel, YouTube, etc.).

TABLE 1.

Mantid species engaged in the capture of birds. Sources for adult female body length—de Saussure (1871): C. argentina. Ehrmann (1992): H. patellifera, H. werneri, P. aeruginosa. Arnett (2000): T. sinensis. Battiston et al. (2010): M. religiosa, S. viridis viridis. Rodrigues (2013): S. septentrionalis. Maxwell (2014): S. carolina, S. limbata.

i1559-4491-129-2-331-t01.tif

TABLE 2.

Bird species reported to be captured by praying mantises in different parts of the world. Standard bird mass data taken from the Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (del Hoyo et al. 2016).

i1559-4491-129-2-331-t02.tif

Our search produced 45 published accounts, 37 accounts from bloggers, three newspaper accounts, five published photos, 48 photos or videos uploaded to internet sources, and nine unpublished accounts (D. Bigas, pers. comm.). Of these predation events, 4% had been reported prior to the year 1920, 29% from 1920 to 1999, and 67% between 2000–2015. The rapid increase in the number of incidents reported since 2000 is most certainly because of the uploading of photos and media to the internet as well as the growing popularity of artificial feeding stations for hummingbirds. For 43 photos, North American hummingbirds and mantids were identified to the lowest taxon possible. Hummingbirds were identified by Remsen. Mantids were identified by Reinhard Ehrmann (Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Karlsruhe, Germany), William F. Fagan (University of Maryland, College Park, USA), and Michael R. Maxwell (National University, La Jolla, CA, USA), using Helfer's (1987) key. Reinhard Ehrmann verified identifications of Mantis religiosa. One mantid in a photo from Panama (Figs. 2E–F) was identified by Reinhard Ehrmann, Julio Rivera (University of Toronto, Canada), and Henrique Miranda Rodrigues (Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA). Kai Schütte (University of Hamburg, Germany) identified a mantid to genus based on the shape of the pronotum in a photo in Vrydagh (1946). Bird taxonomy follows Dickinson and Remsen (2013) and Dickinson and Christidis (2014).

RESULTS

The 147 predation events involved 12 mantid species as predators, representing nine genera (Table 1). Birds captured were all in the orders Apodiformes and Passeriformes, and represented 24 identified species from 14 families (Table 2). The reported incidents originate from 13 different countries and from all continents except Antarctica (Table 1). The vast majority of cases originate from regions of warmer climate (<41° latitude). In the following, we summarize the documented incidents grouped by geographic region.

Reports from North and South America (n = 118)

Most reports (113 of 147) are from the USA (Tables 12), where 110 of 113 incidents were in gardens and yards, nature centers, bird sanctuaries, and state parks, where hummingbirds were attracted to feeders or flowers (Figs. 1, 2A–D). Hummingbirds captured included immatures and adults of both sexes. Incidents of hummingbird predation by mantids were reported for 26 states, with most incidents from New York, North Carolina, Texas, Arizona, and California.

FIG. 1. 

Predation of birds by mantids at hummingbird feeder locations in the USA. (A) Tenodera sinensis eating a Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in Green Castle, Missouri (Photographer: Jeanne A. Scott); (B) Stagmomantis limbata eating Allen's Hummingbird (Selasphorus sasin) in San Juan Capistrano, California (Photographer: Kris Okamoto); and (C) Mantis religiosa eating a Black-chinned Hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri) in Millwood, Colorado (Photographer: Tom Vaughan).

i1559-4491-129-2-331-f01.tif

FIG. 2.

Predation of birds by mantids on vegetation at locations in North America. (A) Tenodera sinensis eating a female Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in Benton Harbor, Michigan (Photographer: Chris McCarthy); (B) Tenodera sinensis eating a Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in Dare County, North Carolina (Photographer: Randy Emmitt); (C) Tenodera sinensis eating an immature male Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in Clermont, New Jersey (Photographer: Todd Klein); (D) Tenodera sinensis eating a Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in Biggsville, Illinois (courtesy from ‘What's That Bug'; photographer: Randy Anderson); (E–F) Stagmatoptera septentrionalis eating a Garden Emerald (Chlorostilbon assimilis) in the Punta Culebra Nature Center, Panama (Photographer: Alvaro Gonzalez).

i1559-4491-129-2-331-f02.tif

In the eastern USA, the mantids engaged in bird predation preyed almost exclusively on the only breeding hummingbird species of that region, the Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus colubris (e.g., Edwards 1934, Butler 1949, Hildebrand 1949, Murray 1958, Weingartner 1976, Conway 1992, Kesterson and Kesterson 1999). In the western USA, mantids captured a broader diversity of hummingbird species (Table 2).

Five cases of predation are reported outside of the USA (Tables 12): one in Canada, two in Central America, one in Trinidad, and one in Argentina. Four of these cases were mantids eating hummingbirds, and the remaining case was the mantid Coptopteryx argentina eating a White-crested Tyrannulet (Serpophaga subcristata) in Argentina (Burmeister 1864).

Reports from Australia and Asia (n = 9)

One predation event was reported for Asia (India), and 8 were reported for Australia (Tables 12). Morse (1922) encountered an unidentified mantid eating a “tiny naked” Yellow-rumped Thornbill (Acanthiza chrysorrhoa) near a bird nest in New South Wales. After finishing its meal, the mantid dropped the dead bird. Three other tiny unidentified birds were lying on the ground, each with a hole in its head through which its brains had been extracted, presumably by the same mantid. In the Northern Territory, Ridpath (1977) witnessed two incidents of a Brown Honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta) being captured by Hierodula werneri. In one instance, the captured bird was able to escape through its own efforts; in the second, the bird, held firmly by the mantid, was unable to escape until the human observer intervened (Ridpath 1977).

Reports from Europe and Africa (n = 20)

Four incidents were recorded for Africa, all involving the predation of small passerine birds by large mantids (Polyspilota aeruginosa, Miomantis sp., and Sphodromantis spp.; Tables 12). For Europe, all reports are from mantid attacks on living birds captured in mist-nets in Spain. Bigas et al. (2006) reported seven predation events, and nine additional events were relayed by D. Bigas (pers. comm.) during a multi-year banding project. Mantids (Mantis religiosa) entered the mist-nets to attack and eat entangled birds (Fig. 3A). Bigas et al. (2006) stated that the mantids were always large and heavy—most likely gravid females. Five species of birds were attacked (Tables 12). Bigas et al. (2006:237) described the feeding behavior of the mantids in the mist-nets:

“The modus operandi of the mantis seems to be to approach the bird, which is always hanging downwards, and then enter the cranial cavity via one of the eyes, feeding on the brain tissues. Although we have not seen the direct attack on the birds, we think that the mantis is most probably attacking the birds when they are still alive, rather than feeding on recently dead birds. We found several instances of the mantis feeding on the head of the bird, and on at least two occasions the mantis cut the head when it finished…. On the days when the attacks were noted, there were not any other losses in the ringing session caused by weather effects or by stress. In some cases the bird still had fresh blood on the head, which indicated a very recent attack and death….”

FIG. 3.  

Predation of birds by mantids on nets or fences. (A) Mantis religiosa eating a European Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) trapped in a mist-net in the Ebro Delta, Spain (Photographer: David Bigas); (B) Stagmomantis limbata eating an Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna) in the Sierra foothills, California (Photographer: Megan Ralph). The bird first became impaled on barbed wire. After a while, the mantid was seen feeding on the carcass.

i1559-4491-129-2-331-f03.tif

DISCUSSION

Mantid and Bird Species Involved

We found 147 cases of mantids preying upon small birds, involving nine genera in the Mantidae and 24 identified small bird species in the Apodiformes and Passeriformes. Not surprisingly, the mantid species tended to be relatively large, typically at least 6 cm in body length. Well-fed adult females of some of the larger genera in this study, such as Hierodula and Tenodera, can weigh up to 7 g (Ridpath 1977, Eisenberg et al. 1981). We note that 11 of the 24 reported bird species have masses <7 g; thus, mantids may frequently outweigh small birds and other vertebrates. Indeed, four mantid genera in the present study (Hierodula, Mantis, Stagmomantis, Tenodera) have been observed eating other small vertebrates, such as frogs, lizards, and mice (Rau and Rau 1913, Ridpath 1977, Vickery and Kevan 1983, Kevan 1985, Ramsay 1990, Ehrmann 1992, Ehrmann and Schmidt 1992, Jehle et al. 1996, Tomasinelli 2000, Mebs et al. 2016). As far as can be determined, all mantids engaged in bird predation were females. In two cases, mantid females were feeding on a bird while mating with a male mantid (e.g., Fig. 2C).

Most cases of bird capture were of hummingbirds (family Trochilidae) in North America and South America (114 of 147 total events). The weights of these hummingbird species ranged from 3–6 g, and so it is likely that almost all hummingbird species are vulnerable to predation by large mantises where they co-occur. Since mantids prey on small, vulnerable birds, one may wonder if they sometimes take nestlings. The only report of a mantis killing and eating apparent nestlings is the one by Morse (1922) from Australia relating to the Yellow-rumped Thornbill. Birds >6 g were captured in Australia, South Africa, Spain, and the USA, with some species up to 20 g. However, captures of larger bird species in Europe occurred when the birds were ensnared in mist-nets (e.g., Erithacus rubecula, Ficedula hypoleuca), which reduce the birds' defensive and escape abilities. Additionally, the birds' body mass was likely borne by the net, thereby allowing the mantids to feed on the heavier birds without actually holding them. Some large mantids, however, are capable of capturing larger birds outside of mist-nets. For example, Lauro (1976) reported that a mantid captured a Blue-headed Vireo (Vireo solitarius), a bird with a body mass of 14–19 g (Table 2). The mantid, holding the bird with a firm grip, was attempting to chew on the bird's wing, but the observers separated the mantis from the bird, which flew away apparently unharmed. Similarly, Ridpath (1977) reported the large mantid Hierodula werneri capturing a 25-g green treefrog (Litoria caerulea).

The preponderance of predation events of hummingbirds in North America can be explained by several factors. First, North America is inhabited by some of the world's smallest birds, hummingbirds, which can be overpowered by the larger mantid species in the genera Mantis, Tenodera, and Stagmomantis. Second, the popular practices of maintaining hummingbird feeders and planting nectar-rich “hummingbird plants” bring these birds close to humans, so that documenting their capture is more likely than for other bird groups. Third, the large mantids Mantis religiosa and Tenodera spp. were released across North America for biological control purposes in the 1900s (Davis 1918, Gurney 1950, Vickery and Kevan 1983). These mantids have become established and are relatively abundant in parts of the eastern half of the USA (Bromley 1932, Gurney 1950, Hurd 1999, Arnett 2000, Snyder and Evans 2006).

Mechanisms of Bird Capture by Mantids

Species within the order Mantodea, particularly those within the family Mantidae, are ambush predators (Svenson and Whiting 2004), including four genera in our compilation: Mantis, Sphodromantis, Stagmomantis, Tenodera (Svenson and Whiting 2004). When a bird comes within strike distance, usually 5–10 cm, the mantid quickly strikes with its two raptorial front legs, while holding to its perch with its four other legs (Fisher 1994, Schwetman 1995, Prete et al. 1999). Once the bird is seized, the mantid holds it firmly and begins to feed. Birds have been observed to die within one to a few minutes after capture (Dale 2005).

The majority of attacks resulted in the capture and eating of the birds (115 of 147 total attacks, including one case of some type of scavenging [see the following material]). Birds still alive when in the grasp of a mantid were usually trying to escape by vigorous wing beating accompanied by distress calls, but they were able to escape through their own efforts in only three attacks (Ridpath 1977; Anonymous 2009, 2010). In the remaining 26 cases, humans rescued the birds when alerted by the birds' distress calls or wing noise (e.g., Hildebrand 1949, Williams 1974, Lauro 1976, Mahler 1977, Dale 2005, Richman 2013). In one instance a Brown Creeper (Certhia americana) hanging defenseless in a mist-net was attacked by a mantid (Prescott 1968). Prescott (1968:59) noted:

The mantis had reached through the net mesh and firmly grasped the creeper who remained strangely motionless while the mantis fed on its right wing. The ulna was partially exposed and some flesh had been removed although there was very little bleeding along the approximately inch-long opening on the outer side of the wing.

After a while the insect ceased feeding, released the bird, and left the mist-net. The injured bird survived the attack and was later released by the banders. In two other cases, mantids injured birds hanging in mist-nets without killing them (D. Bigas, pers. comm.).

In about two-thirds of the cases, the birds were bitten in the head, neck, or throat (e.g., Carignan 1988, Kesterson and Kesterson 1999, Bigas et al. 2006, Lorenz 2007). In several cases, a hole was chewed in the victim's head through which its brains were extracted (Morse 1922; Bigas et al. 2006; K. Okamoto, pers. comm.). Direct observations of the capture event will be required to determine whether the mantises are programmed to attack the head and neck (rather than to just begin chewing the area closest to the mouth parts upon capture) and to quantify whether mantises have specific bird-handling techniques, and whether this varies among mantis species. Occasionally, birds were scalped or decapitated, and in a few cases they were defeathered by their captors (see Browne 1899, Dale 2005, Bigas et al. 2006, Shackelford et al. 2009).

One incident was a form of scavenging. An Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna) died after becoming impaled on barbed wire (Fig. 3B; M. Ralph, pers. comm.), and a female Stagmomantis limbata was then seen feeding on the carcass. Presumably, the bird was still moving after becoming impaled, because S. limbata does not attack non-moving items (MRM, pers. obs.), similar to other mantid species (Rau and Rau 1913).

Mantids as Food for Birds

Large mantises are themselves also eaten by birds. For example, in France, a praying mantis Mantis religiosa of 3 g weight was detected in the pellet of an Iberian Grey Shrike Lanius meridionalis (Lepley et al. 2004). Tergou et al. (2014) found 46 large mantises (including 41 Sphodromantis viridis, four Mantis religiosa, and 1 Iris oratoria) in the regurgitated pellets of the Tawny Owl Strix aluco in Algeria. In Australia, a Black-faced Cuckooshrike (Coracina novaehollandiae) was repeatedly seen catching and eating the large mantid Hierodula werneri (Ridpath 1977). In Singapore, a Hierodula sp., 6.5 cm in length, was found in the stomach of a White-breasted Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis (Gibson-Hill 1948). In Taiwan, the Besra Accipiter virgatus has been reported feeding its young with the large mantis Hierodula patellifera (Huang et al. 2006), and according to a Japanese study the oothecae of this same mantis species are often devoured by the Large-billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos (Kurosawa et al. 2003). These examples of predation on large mantids are all by birds with >50 g body mass (see del Hoyo et al. 2016). Gurney (1950) listed 34 species of North American birds that feed on mantids of unknown sizes.

Ecological Implications

Some have suggested that North American hummingbirds might be largely immune to predation (Stiles 1978, Miller and Gass 1985, Hixon and Carpenter 1988, Zenzal et al. 2013). Nonetheless, in North America, a diverse array of vertebrate predators feed at least occasionally on hummingbirds, including raptors, other birds, frogs, lizards, snakes, and cats (Miller and Gass 1985, True 1993). However, reports on hummingbird predation in North America to date remain mostly anecdotal (Lockwood 1922, Lowery 1938, Norris-Elye 1944, Monroe 1957, Grant 1959, Wright 1962, Mayr 1966, Spofford 1976, Gamboa 1977, Hofslund 1977, Graves 1978, Seutin and Apanius 1995, Robinson 2003, García-C. and Zahawi 2006), and so the frequency of occurrence has yet to be quantified.

As for invertebrates, the main predators other than mantids on North American hummingbirds and other small birds are large orb-weaving spiders in the genera Nephila and Argiope (Kirkham 1925, Mackay 1929, Abbott 1931, Woods 1934, Stott 1951, McKenzie 1991, Graham 1997, Heck and Heck 2001, Sakai 2007, Martin and Platt 2011, Brooks 2012, Martínez-Sánchez et al. 2013). Brooks (2012) documented 69 incidents of bird capture by large orb-weaving spiders and found, as in our study, that hummingbirds were the most frequently captured birds and that Ruby-throated Hummingbirds were the most frequently reported victims. The diversity of bird species captured by spiders was more than twice that of the mantids (54 versus 24 bird species). Mantids took a higher percentage of small birds (>70% in the ≤6 g body mass range) compared to spiders (<50% in the ≤6 g body mass range; mean = 11 g). Both these trends make sense because the web-building spiders do not use their own body mass to subdue prey (see Nyffeler and Knörnschild 2013).

Analysis of photos from various parts of the USA that depict bird predation by mantids (see Methods section) shows that both introduced and native mantids kill birds (Figs. 1, 2A–D). Based on these records, 25 (58%) of the bird captures were by non-native mantids (Tenodera sinensis and Mantis religiosa), and 18 (42%) were by native mantids (Stagmomantis spp.). In the eastern USA, most incidents involved introduced mantis species, whereas native mantids usually were the predators in the western USA. Thus, bird predation by mantises in the USA is not solely because of the introduction of non-native mantid species; in fact observations of bird predation by mantids (Alexander 1888) predate the first record of a non-native mantid in North America.

For many years, the oothecae of non-native mantids have been released in gardens in the USA as a tool for controlling garden insect pests (Hurd 2008). However, the beneficial effect of these predators has been questioned (Antonelli and Glass 2004, Meyer 2010). A meta-analysis of predation by mantids on arthropod community structure reveals mixed effects (Fagan et al. 2002), with the addition of mantids enhancing arthropod herbivores in some cases (e.g., beetles and hemipteran bugs) while suppressing others (e.g., dipteran flies). Additionally, mantids feed on beneficial pollinating insects such as honey bees in addition to pests (Bromley 1948, Maxwell and Eitan 1998, Hurd 2008, Maxwell and Frinchaboy 2014). Also, non-native mantids engage in intraguild predation, i.e., predation on other predators such as native mantids and spiders, which may enhance pest densities (Hurd 2008). The spread of non-native mantids may even result in the loss of native species (Fea et al. 2013). At least one of the large non-native North American mantids (i.e., the Chinese mantis Tenodera sinensis) has since reached the status of an invasive species (Snyder and Evans 2006). These ecological considerations, together with the predation risk that mantids pose to some bird species, particularly hummingbirds, lead us to recommend caution in the release of mantids into North American gardens.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank the following for assistance in identifying mantids based on photos: R. Ehrmann, B. Fagan, J. Rivera, H. Miranda Rodrigues, and K. Schütte. D. Bigas graciously granted us access to his field notes. Peter E. Scott and an anonymous reviewer offered valuable criticisms. We thank the Western Australian Naturalists' Club for assistance in getting access to literature. Finally, we thank all those who gave permission to use their photos including ‘Dutch Birding' and ‘What's That Bug.'

LITERATURE CITED

1.

Abbott, C. G. 1931. Birds caught in spiders' webs. Condor 33:169. Google Scholar

2.

Alexander, G. W. 1888. Letter to the Elliott Society. Proceedings of the Elliott Society of Science and Art of Charleston, South Carolina 2:195–196. Google Scholar

3.

Allen, J. C. 1961. [A short note on a praying mantis killing a hummingbird]. Texas Game and Fish 19:66. Google Scholar

4.

Anonymous. 2009. Praying mantis attacks hummingbird. YouTube LLC, San Bruno, California, USA.  www.youtube.com/watch?v=ep6vmpcUQR8#t=23 (accessed 6 Feb 2016). Google Scholar

5.

Anonymous. 2010. Praying mantis snags hummingbird. YouTube LLC, San Bruno, California, USA.  www.youtube.com/watch?v=-CwFn9F3ONU (accessed 6 Feb 2016). Google Scholar

6.

Antonelli, A. and J. R. Glass. 2004. Mantids in Washington. Pest Leaflet Series 9. Washington State University, Puyallup Plant and Insect Diagnostic Laboratory, Puyallup, USA.  puyallup.wsu.edu/plantclinic/wp-content/uploads/sites/408/2015/02/PLS-9-Mantids-in-Washington.pdf (accessed 16 Apr 2016). Google Scholar

7.

Arnett Jr., R. H. 2000. American insects: a handbook of the insects of America north of Mexico. Second Edition. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. Google Scholar

8.

Battiston, R., L. Picciau, P. Fontana, and J. Marshall. 2010. Mantids of the Euro-Mediterranean area. World Biodiversity Association Handbook 2:1–240. Google Scholar

9.

Bedichek, R. 1961. Adventures with a Texas naturalist. Second Edition. University of Texas Press, Austin, USA. Google Scholar

10.

Beier, M. 1969. Mantodea (Dictyoptera) von Angola. Publicações Culturais da Companhia de Diamantes de Angola 81:15–44. Google Scholar

11.

Bigas, D., J. Piccardo, and J. L. Copete. 2006. Praying mantis killing passerines in mistnets. Dutch Birding 28:237–238. Google Scholar

12.

Bridges, Y. and N. Guppy. 1980. Child of the tropics: Victorian memoirs. Collins and Harvill Press, London, United Kingdom. Google Scholar

13.

Bromley, S. W. 1932. Observations on the Chinese mantid Paratenodera sinensis Saussure. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 27:196–201. Google Scholar

14.

Bromley, S. W. 1948. Honey-bee predators. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 56:195–199. Google Scholar

15.

Brooks, D. M. 2012. Birds caught in spider webs: a synthesis of patterns. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124:345–353. Google Scholar

16.

Browne, C. A. R. 1899. A bird killed by a mantis. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 12:578–579. Google Scholar

17.

Burmeister, H. 1864. Notiz über die Mantis-Arten bei Buenos-Aires. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 8:234–238. Google Scholar

18.

Butler, C. 1949. Hummingbird killed by preying mantis. Auk 66:286. Google Scholar

19.

Carignan, J. M. 1988. Predation on Rufous Hummingbird by praying mantid. Texas Journal of Science 40:111. Google Scholar

20.

Conway, A. E. 1992. Praying mantis kills hummingbird. Chat 56:31–32. Google Scholar

21.

Costa-Pereira, R., F. I. Martins, E. A. Sczesny-Moraes, and A. Brescovit. 2010. Predation on young treefrog (Osteocephalus taurinus) by arthropods (Insecta, Mantodea and Arachnida, Araneae) in central Brazil. Biota Neotropica 10:469–472. Google Scholar

22.

Dale, S. 2005. Praying mantis preying on vertebrates. Western Australian Naturalist 24:247–249. Google Scholar

23.

Davis, W. T. 1918. Introduction of Palæarctic preying mantids into the north Atlantic states. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 13:73–76. Google Scholar

24.

de Saussure, H. 1871. Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire naturelle du Mexique, des Antilles et des États-Unis. Volume 4. Synopsis des mantides américains. Imprimerie Ramboz et Schuchardt, Geneva, Switzerland. Google Scholar

25.

del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana (Editors). 2016. Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.  www.hbw.com/ (accessed 4 Jun 2016). Google Scholar

26.

Dickinson, E. C. and L. Christidis (Editors). 2014. The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. Fourth Edition. Volume 2. Passerines.Aves Press, Eastbourne, United Kingdom. Google Scholar

27.

Dickinson, E. C. and J. V. Remsen Jr. (Editors). 2013. The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. Fourth Edition. Volume 1. Non-passerines.Aves Press, Eastbourne, United Kingdom. Google Scholar

28.

Edwards, J. L. 1934. A bird-catching insect. Abstract of the Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New York 43/44:44. Google Scholar

29.

Ehrmann, R. 1992. Wirbeltiere als Nahrung von Gottesanbeterinnen (Mantodea). Entomologische Zeitschrift 102:153–162. Google Scholar

30.

Ehrmann, R. 2002. Mantodea: Gottesanbeterinnen der Welt. Natur und Tier-Verlag, Münster, Germany. Google Scholar

31.

Ehrmann, R. and H. Schmidt. 1992. Etruskerspitzmaus (Suncus etruscus) als Beute einer Gottesanbeterin (Mantis religiosa). Säugetierkundliche Informationen 3:460–461. Google Scholar

32.

Eisenberg, R. M., L. E. Hurd, and J. A. Bartley. 1981. Ecological consequences of food limitation for adult mantids (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure). American Midland Naturalist 106:209–218. Google Scholar

33.

Fagan, W. F., M. D. Moran, J. J. Rango, and L. E. Hurd. 2002. Community effects of praying mantids: a meta-analysis of the influences of species identity and experimental design. Ecological Entomology 27:385–395. Google Scholar

34.

Fea, M. P., M. C. Stanley, and G. I. Holwell. 2013. Fatal attraction: sexually cannibalistic invaders attract naive native mantids. Biology Letters 9:20130746. Google Scholar

35.

Fisher Jr., R. 1994. Praying mantis catches and eats hummingbird. Birding 26:376. Google Scholar

36.

Gamboa, G. J. 1977. Predation on Rufous Hummingbird by Wied's Crested Flycatcher. Auk 94:157–158. Google Scholar

37.

García-C., J. M. and R. A. Zahawi. 2006. Predation by a Blue-crowned Motmot (Momotus momota) on a hummingbird. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 118:261–263. Google Scholar

38.

Gibson-Hill, C. A. 1948. A note on the food habits of three kingfishers occurring on Singapore Island. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 48:146–152. Google Scholar

39.

Graham, D. L. 1997. Spider webs and windows as potentially important sources of hummingbird mortality. Journal of Field Ornithology 68:98–101. Google Scholar

40.

Grant, J. 1959. Hummingbirds attacked by wasps. Canadian Field-Naturalist 73:174. Google Scholar

41.

Graves, G. R. 1978. Predation on hummingbird by oropendola. Condor 80:251. Google Scholar

42.

Gurney, A. B. 1950. Praying mantids of the United States, native and introduced. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 1950:339–362. Google Scholar

43.

Heck, B. A. and C. H. Heck. 2001. Common Yellowthroat captured in a spider's web. Bulletin of the Oklahoma Ornithological Society 34:19–20. Google Scholar

44.

Helfer, J. R. 1987. How to know the grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches and their allies. Dover Publications Inc., Mineola, New York, USA. Google Scholar

45.

Hildebrand, E. M. 1949. Hummingbird captured by preying mantis. Auk 66:286. Google Scholar

46.

Hixon, M. A. and F. L. Carpenter. 1988. Distinguishing energy maximizers from time minimizers: a comparative study of two hummingbird species. American Zoologist 28:913–925. Google Scholar

47.

Hofslund, P. B. 1977. Dragonfly attacks and kills a Ruby-throated Hummingbird. Loon 49:238. Google Scholar

48.

Huang, K.-Y., Y.-S. Lin, and L. L. Severinghaus. 2006. Comparison of three common methods for studying the diet of nestlings in two Accipiter species. Zoological Studies 45:234–243. Google Scholar

49.

Hurd, L. E. 1999. Ecology of praying mantids. Pages 43–60 in The praying mantids ( F. R. Prete, H. Wells, P. H. Wells, and L. E. Hurd, Editors). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Google Scholar

50.

Hurd, L. E. 2008. Praying mantids (Mantodea). Pages 3033–3037 in Encyclopedia of entomology. Second Edition ( J. L. Capinera, Editor). Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Google Scholar

51.

Jehle, R., A. Franz, M. Kapfer, H. Schramm, and H. G. Tunner. 1996. Lizards as prey of arthropods: praying mantis Mantis religiosa (Linnaeus, 1758) feeds on juvenile sand lizard Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758. Herpetozoa 9:157–159. Google Scholar

52.

Johnson, M. D. 1976. Concerning the feeding habits of the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 49:164. Google Scholar

53.

Kesterson, O. J. and C. A. Kesterson. 1999. Praying mantis preys on hummingbird. Bulletin of the Oklahoma Ornithological Society 32:31–32. Google Scholar

54.

Kevan, D. K. M. 1985. The mantis and the serpent. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 121:1–8. Google Scholar

55.

Kirkham, S. D. 1925. A spider traps a humming bird. New York State Museum Bulletin 260:34–36. Google Scholar

56.

Kurosawa, R., R. Kono, T. Kondo, and Y. Kanai. 2003. Diet of Jungle Crows in an urban landscape. Global Environmental Research 7:193–198. Google Scholar

57.

Laurent, P. 1933. Mantis captures hummingbird (Orthop.: Mantidae). Entomological News 44:39. Google Scholar

58.

Lauro, A. J. 1976. Praying mantis captures Solitary Vireo. Kingbird 26:92. Google Scholar

59.

Lepley, M., M. Thevenot, C.-P. Guillaume, P. Ponel, and P. Bayle. 2004. Diet of the nominate Southern Grey Shrike Lanius meridionalis meridionalis in the north of its range (Mediterranean France). Bird Study 51:156–162. Google Scholar

60.

Lockwood, M. E. 1922. Hummingbird and bass. Bird-Lore 24:94. Google Scholar

61.

Lorenz, S. 2007. Carolina mantid (Stagmomantis carolina) captures and feeds on a Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus). Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 40:37–38. Google Scholar

62.

Lowery Jr., G. H. 1938. Hummingbird in a Pigeon Hawk's stomach. Auk 55:280. Google Scholar

63.

Mackay, G. H. 1929. A spider (Argiope aurantia) and a bird (Astragalinus tristis tristis). Auk 46:123–124. Google Scholar

64.

Mahler, R. 1977. Mantis captures warbler. Conservationist (State of New York, Department of Environmental Conservation) 31(6):39. Google Scholar

65.

Martin, J. and S. G. Platt. 2011. Mortality of a Black-chinned Hummingbird following entanglement in a spider web. Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 44:95–96. Google Scholar

66.

Martínez-Sánchez, I., S. N. Maldonado, and J. Valencia-Herverth. 2013. First report for Mexico of a the hummingbird Archilochus colubris caught in a spider web of Nephila clavipes. Huitzil 14:110–112. Google Scholar

67.

Maxwell, M. R. 2014. A synoptic review of the genus Stagmomantis (Mantodea: Mantidae). Zootaxa 3765:501–525. Google Scholar

68.

Maxwell, M. R. and O. Eitan. 1998. Range expansion of an introduced mantid Iris oratoria and niche overlap with a native mantid Stagmomantis limbata (Mantodea: Mantidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91:422–429. Google Scholar

69.

Maxwell, M. R. and C. Frinchaboy. 2014. Consequences of intraspecific variation in female body size in Stagmomantis limbata (Mantodea: Mantidae): feeding ecology, male attraction, and egg production. Environmental Entomology 43:91–101. Google Scholar

70.

Mayr, E. 1966. Hummingbird caught by Sparrow Hawk. Auk 83:664. Google Scholar

71.

McCormick, S. and G. A. Polis. 1982. Arthropods that prey on vertebrates. Biological Reviews 57:29–58. Google Scholar

72.

McKenzie, P. M. 1991. A Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) trapped in a spider's web. Journal of Louisiana Ornithology 1:54–58. Google Scholar

73.

Mebs, D., M. Yotsu-Yamashita, and O. Arakawa. 2016. The praying mantis (Mantodea) as predator of the poisonous red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae). Chemoecology 26:121–126. Google Scholar

74.

Meyer, J. 2010. Harmful predators: Chinese mantid. Biological Control Information Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA.  www4.ncsu.edu/∼dorr/Insects/Harmful_Predators/Chinese_Mantid/chinese_mantid.html (accessed 16 Apr 2016). Google Scholar

75.

Miller, R. S. and C. L. Gass. 1985. Survivorship in hummingbirds: is predation important? Auk 102:175–178. Google Scholar

76.

Monroe, M. 1957. Hummingbird killed by frog. Condor 59:69. Google Scholar

77.

Morse, F. C. 1922. Mantis and young birds. Emu 22:74. Google Scholar

78.

Murray, J. J. 1958. Ruby-throated Hummingbird captured by a praying mantis. Wilson Bulletin 70:381. Google Scholar

79.

Nash, K. M. 1962. Mantis eats frog. Victorian Naturalist 79:11. Google Scholar

80.

Nickle, D. A. and J. Harper. 1981. Predation on a mouse by the Chinese mantid Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure (Dictyoptera: Mantoidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 83:801–802. Google Scholar

81.

Norris-Elye, L. S. T. 1944. Leopard frogs devouring small birds. Auk 61:643–644. Google Scholar

82.

Nyffeler, M. and M. Knörnschild. 2013. Bat predation by spiders. PLoS ONE 8:e58120. Google Scholar

83.

Prescott, K. W. 1968. Praying mantis feeds on netted Brown Creeper. Bird-Banding 39:59. Google Scholar

84.

Prete, F. R., H. Wells, P. H. Wells, and L. E. Hurd (Editors). 1999. The praying mantids. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Google Scholar

85.

Ramsay, G. W. 1990. Mantodea (Insecta), with a review of aspects of functional morphology and biology. Fauna of New Zealand 19:1–96. Google Scholar

86.

Rau, P. and N. Rau. 1913. The biology of Stagmomantis carolina. Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis 22:1–58. Google Scholar

87.

Restall, R. 2010. Munias and mannikins. Christopher Helm Publishers, London, United Kingdom Google Scholar

88.

Richman, D. B. 2013. An arthropod observation garden. Part 2. The arthropods. Micscape 217. www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artnov13/dr-arthropod-garden-2.doc (accessed 6 Feb 2016). Google Scholar

89.

Ridpath, M. G. 1977. Predation on frogs and small birds by Hierodula werneri (Giglio-Tos) (Mantidae) in tropical Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 16:153–154. Google Scholar

90.

Robinson, W. D. 2003. White-necked Puffbird captures Rufous-tailed Hummingbird. Wilson Bulletin 115:486–487. Google Scholar

91.

Rodrigues, H. M. 2013. Revisão taxonômica de Stagmatoptera Burmeister, 1838 (Mantodea, Mantidae, Stagmatopterinae) [in Portuguese with English abstract]. Thesis. Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. Google Scholar

92.

Ross, E. S. 1984. Mantids: the praying predators. National Geographic 165:268–280. Google Scholar

93.

Roy, R. 2010. Statements on the genus Sphodromantis Stål, 1871 (Mantodea, Mantidae) [in French with English abstract]. Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 115:345–366. Google Scholar

94.

Russell, F. 1961. Watchers at the pond. Alfred A. Knopf Inc., New York, USA. Google Scholar

95.

Sakai, W. H. 2007. Long-billed Hermit (Phaethornis superciliosus) caught in golden orb-spider (Nephilia clavipes) web. Ornitología Neotropical 18:117–119. Google Scholar

96.

Schwetman, J. 1995. Nature notebook: mantis can be death to tiny birds. Waco Tribune-Herald 23 Sep 1995. Waco, Texas, USA. Google Scholar

97.

Seutin, G. and V. Apanius. 1995. Gray Flycatcher predation on a hummingbird. Wilson Bulletin 107:565–567. Google Scholar

98.

Shackelford, C. E., M. M. Lindsay, and C. M. Klym. 2009. Hummingbirds of Texas, with their New Mexico and Arizona ranges. Texas A and M University Press, College Station, USA. Google Scholar

99.

Smith, K. G. V. 1992. Records of mantids catching hummingbirds. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 128:257. Google Scholar

100.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 2012. Captured. STRI News 29 Jun 2012. www.stri.si.edu/sites/strinews/PDFs/STRINews_Jun29_2012.pdf (accessed 6 Feb 2016). Google Scholar

101.

Snyder, W. E. and E. W. Evans. 2006. Ecological effects of invasive arthropod generalist predators. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37:95–122. Google Scholar

102.

Spofford, S. H. 1976. Roadrunner catches hummingbird in flight. Condor 78:142. Google Scholar

103.

Stiles, F. G. 1978. Possible specialization for hummingbird-hunting in the Tiny Hawk. Auk 95:550–553. Google Scholar

104.

Stott Jr., K. 1951. An Anna Hummingbird caught in a spider web. Condor 53:49. Google Scholar

105.

Svenson, G. J. and M. F. Whiting. 2004. Phylogeny of Mantodea based on molecular data: evolution of a charismatic predator. Systematic Entomology 29:359–370. Google Scholar

106.

Teale, E. W. 1953. Circle of the seasons: the journal of a naturalist's year. Dodd, Mead and Co., New York, USA. Google Scholar

107.

Tergou, S., M. Boukhemza, F. Marniche, A. Milla, and S. Doumandji. 2014. Dietary distinctive features of Tawny Owl, Strix aluco (Linn 1758) and Barn Owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli 1759) in gardens of Algerian Sahel, El Harrach, Jardin d'Essai du Hamma. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 46:1013–1022. Google Scholar

108.

Tomasinelli, F. 2000. Predation of vertebrates by praying mantids. Mantis Study Group Newsletter 17:1–3. Google Scholar

109.

Toops, C. M. 1992. Hummingbirds: jewels in flight. Voyageur Press Inc., Stillwater, Minnesota, USA. Google Scholar

110.

Trouessart, A. 1912. La mante tunisienne et le Pouillot fitis. La Nature 2021:193–195. Google Scholar

111.

True, D. 1993. Hummingbirds of North America: attracting, feeding, and photographing. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, USA. Google Scholar

112.

Vickery, V. R. and D. K. M. Kevan. 1983. A monograph of the orthopteroid insects of Canada and adjacent regions. Lyman Entomological Museum and Research Laboratory Memoirs 13:216–237. Google Scholar

113.

Vrydagh, J. M. 1946. Mantis eating a bird (Estrilda astrild occidentalis). Ostrich 17:201–202. Google Scholar

114.

Weingartner, M. P. 1976. Letter to the editors. Kingbird 26:147. Google Scholar

115.

Williams, F. (Editor). 1974. Hummingbirds, kingfishers. American Birds 28:73–74. Google Scholar

116.

Woods, R. S. 1934. A hummingbird entangled in a spider's web. Condor 36:242. Google Scholar

117.

Wright, B. S. 1962. Baltimore Oriole kills hummingbird. Auk 79:112. Google Scholar

118.

Zenzal Jr., T. J., A. C. Fish, T. M. Jones, E. A. Ospina, and F. R. Moore. 2013. Observations of predation and anti-predator behavior of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds during migratory stopover. Southeastern Naturalist 12:N21–N25. Google Scholar
Martin Nyffeler, Michael R. Maxwell, and J. V. Remsen "Bird Predation By Praying Mantises: A Global Perspective," The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 129(2), 331-344, (1 June 2017). https://doi.org/10.1676/16-100.1
Received: 22 June 2016; Accepted: 1 August 2016; Published: 1 June 2017
JOURNAL ARTICLE
14 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
Back to Top