The extinct Laysan Rail or Crake (Zapornia palmeri) was a small, flightless rail endemic to Laysan Island in the northwestern chain of the Hawaiian Archipelago. I detail the collections made, including eggs, nests, juveniles, and numerous adults prior to its extinction. The juvenile plumage was seemingly well documented, but my study of a series of juvenile specimens collected in 1891 and 1896 provides hitherto undescribed molt changes, from downy chick to definitive plumage. Morphometric data show that sexual size dimorphism is present with males being slightly more robust in bill, legs, and feet. I provide a detailed review of the literature showing the chronology of events that led to the extinction of the species and how this easily could have been avoided.
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