Field experiments were conducted in 1996 and 1997 to determine the effect of the rate and time of glyphosate application on weed emergence, survival, biomass, and Glycine max yield in reduced-tillage (RT) and no-tillage (NT) glyphosate-resistant G. max planted in rows spaced 18 (narrow-row) and 76 cm (wide-row). Glyphosate was applied at 0.42, 0.63, and 0.84 kg ae ha−1 at V2, V4, R1, and R4 growth stages. On separate plots, 0.84 kg ha−1 glyphosate was applied at each growth stage with hand weeding. A weed-free check was maintained with preemergence imazethapyr plus metolachlor supplemented with hand weeding, and a nontreated check was included. Weed population density before glyphosate application ranged from 239 to 606 plants m−2 in RT and 33 to 500 plants m−2 in NT systems. Setaria faberi and Chenopodium album were the predominant species. Weed control efficacy and crop yield were influenced more by application time than by glyphosate rate. Glyphosate applied at V2, V4, and R1 gave season-long control of weeds in 18-cm rows. In 76-cm rows, glyphosate applied at V2, V4, and R1 gave almost complete control of weeds, but broadleaf weeds emerged after application at V2. The critical time of weed removal, the time beyond which weed competition reduced G. max yield by 3% or more compared to the weed-free check, was at R1 and V4 in 18-cm RT G. max in 1996 and 1997, respectively, and at V2 in 76-cm RT G. max in both years. The predicted critical time of weed removal in 18- and 76-cm NT G. max was R1 and V4, respectively, in 1996 and R1 in 1997. This research showed that there was variation in the onset of the critical time of weed removal between tillage systems, as well as within tillage systems across years. The results indicate a single glyphosate application can prevent yield loss in narrow-row, glyphosate-resistant G. max under favorable conditions, but application timing becomes more critical in wide rows because the critical period of weed removal occurs earlier. Late-emerging weeds may warrant a second glyphosate application in wide-row G. max.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate; imazethapyr; metolachlor; Chenopodium album L. CHEAL, common lambsquarters; Setaria faberi Herrm. SETFA, giant foxtail; Glycine max (L.) Merr., ‘Asgrow experimental 19505’, soybean.