Whole-plant, negative cross-resistance was studied in Conyza canadensis and Echinochloa crus-galli, important global weeds. Negative cross-resistance can be a most useful preemptive, cost-effective tool for delaying the evolution of resistance, as well as for resistance management, after resistant populations evolve. Seeds of triazine-resistant and -susceptible biotypes were collected in or near orchards that had been continuously treated with atrazine for more than 10 yr. Plants grown from the seeds were treated, in a greenhouse, with herbicides from the following chemical families: triazine, benzothiadiazole, phenyl-pyridazine, arylophenoxy-propionate, cyclohexanedione, phenoxycarboxylic acid, pyridine carboxylic acid, phosphinic acid, glycine phosphate, chloroacetamide, sulfonylurea, and bipyridylium. Eleven of the 18 herbicides tested exerted significant negative cross-resistance against atrazine-resistant weeds, ranging from 0.03 to 0.67 of the concentration required to affect the triazine-sensitive type. No synergism was found between bentazon and fluroxypyr in mixture on Conyza, even though both separately exerted negative cross-resistance. Using a mixture with half the amount of each component lowers the environmental effect of each component while controlling a broader spectrum of other weeds.
Nomenclature: Bentazon; fluroxypyr; Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. ECHCG, barnyardgrass; Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. ERICA, horseweed.