Field studies were conducted to determine the effect of early-season and early- plus late-season acetolactate synthase–resistant Helianthus annuus interference on Glycine max and H. annuus growth and yield at two sites in Missouri. Helianthus annuus densities of 3 plants m−2 were established shortly after G. max emergence in all plots except the weed-free check. To study early-season interference, H. annuus were removed with postemergence glyphosate (0.84 kg ae ha−1) 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk after planting (WAP) and kept weed-free for the rest of the growing season. Glycine max yields were not different with 2, 4, 6, or 8 wk of early-season interference at either location. To study early- plus late-season interference, H. annuus densities were established at 3 plants m−2. They were then removed 2, 4, 6, or 8 WAP with glyphosate and subsequently reestablished at the same density within 2 wk after removal by newly emerging and transplanted H. annuus. These H. annuus were allowed to remain in the field for the remainder of the growing season. This provided a weed-free period of approximately 2 wk during the growing season beginning 2, 4, 6, or 8 WAP. Season-long interference and no-interference treatments were also included. Glycine max yields were reduced 47 to 72% with season-long interference. Helianthus annuus vegetative dry matter was approximately 56% lower at Columbia than at Miami. Glycine max yields tended to increase as the weed-free period was delayed into the growing season. Early-season weed-free periods (2 to 4 and 4 to 6 WAP) allowed H. annuus to become re-established before G. max formed a canopy and resulted in larger amounts of H. annuus biomass and seed production as well as G. max yield losses of 15 to 80%. Re-establishment of H. annuus in 6 to 8 WAP and 8 to 10 WAP weed-free treatments generally resulted in the plants surviving for only a few weeks after establishment and not producing seed or reducing G. max yield.
Nomenclature:Glyphosate; Helianthus annuus L. HELAN, common sunflower; Glycine max (L.) Merr ‘Asgrow 3601’, soybean.