Geostatistical techniques were used to describe and map the spatial distribution of crenate broomrape populations parasitizing broad bean over 6 yr (from 1985 to 1990). In the first year, the spatial distribution was random, but from 1986 to 1989, crenate broomrape populations were clearly aggregated. The crenate broomrape infection severity (IS: number of emerged broomrape m−2) increased every year, from an average of 0.45 in 1985 to 29.4 in 1989, with a slight decrease the following year (IS = 27.4). Spherical functions provided the best fit because the cross-validation criteria were accomplished in all study cases. Kriged estimates were used to draw contour maps of the populations. About 34.3, 43.3, and 74.3% of the field plot surface exhibited an IS ≥ 1 (economic threshold) in 1985, 1986, and 1987, respectively, and nearly 100% of the area exceeded the economic threshold from 1988 to 1990; 1985 and 1986 were key years for control of the parasitic weed population. The percentage of infested area at different IS intervals in each year's map obtained by kriging was used to estimate the percentage of yield losses in each infested area (YA) with the equation: YA = A * Ymax * (1 − IS * 0.124), where A is the infested area at a given IS interval and Ymax is the expected broomrape-free broad bean yield. Yield losses under different IS intervals were compared with yield loss attributable to a uniform distribution of crenate broomrape. Results showed that yield loss assuming a uniform distribution of crenate broomrape was clearly overestimated, which is important to avoid overuse of herbicides.
Nomenclature: Crenate broomrape, Orobanche crenata Forsk. ORACR; Vicia faba L.