This study was conducted to determine the effect of Canada thistle density and the direct and indirect effects of Canada thistle aboveground biomass and N concentration on wheat yield. A 4-yr experiment (1991–1995) with four Canada thistle densities (0, 4, 16, 64 plants m−2) was conducted. Initial statistical analysis showed a significant effect of Canada thistle density on wheat yield. Multiple regression and path analysis showed that the main factor causing wheat yield loss was Canada thistle N concentration. The second factor affecting wheat yield was Canada thistle biomass, and the last was Canada thistle density.
Nomenclature: Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. CIRAR; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.) Em. Tell. ‘Yecora’.