Studies were conducted to evaluate density-dependent effects of common ragweed on weed growth and peanut growth and yield. Common ragweed height was not affected by weed density and peanut canopy diameter. Weed height exceeded peanut height throughout the growing season, indicating that competition for light occurred between the two species. Common ragweed aboveground dry biomass per plant decreased as weed density increased, but total weed dry biomass per meter of crop row increased with weed density. The rectangular hyperbola model described the effect of weed density on percent peanut yield loss. With the asymptote constrained to 100% maximum yield loss, the I coefficient (yield loss per unit density as density approaches zero) was 68.3 ± 12.2%. Common ragweed did not influence the occurrence of tomato spotted wilt virus, early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola), southern stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii), and Cylindrocladium black rot (Cylindrocladium crotalariae). However, as common ragweed density increased, the incidence of late leaf spot (Cercosporidium personatum) increased. Results indicate that common ragweed is one of the more competitive weeds in peanut and a potential economic threat to peanut growers.
Nomenclature: Common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. AMBEL; peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. ‘NC 7’.