Annual bluegrass control was reduced following 7 yr of continuous fall application of dinitroaniline (DNA) herbicides. Annual bluegrass control was < 40% on two fairways in year eight following prodiamine applied at 1.1 kg ai ha−1. In dose–response studies conducted in growth chambers, this annual bluegrass population exhibited 105-fold resistance in shoot growth to prodiamine compared with a known susceptible population. A 6.4-fold resistance to prodiamine was found when comparing annual bluegrass root growth to the known susceptible biotype. Spring-applied oxadiazon did not affect shoot or root growth between annual bluegrass biotypes. Equivalent levels of control were attained with pronamide. The presence of DNA-resistant annual bluegrass, in addition to previously confirmed triazine-resistant biotypes on North Carolina golf courses, indicates a need for resistance management strategies to be integrated into golf turf management practices.
Nomenclature: Oxadiazon; prodiamine; pronamide; annual bluegrass, Poa annua L. POANN.