Sunflower broomrape and Egyptian broomrape are two holoparasites of sunflower that cause severe yield loss. The aim of the current study was to clarify the relationship between temperature and sunflower broomrape and Egyptian broomrape parasitism of the resistant sunflower variety ‘Ambar’ (R) and the susceptible variety ‘Adi’ (S). Experiments were conducted in pots under controlled conditions in a multiclimate greenhouse at five temperature (day–night) regimes: 17:9 C, 20:12 C, 23:15 C, 26:18 C, and 29:21 C. The resistant confectionery sunflower variety (R) was susceptible to sunflower broomrape only at low temperature regimes of 17:9 C, whereas the S variety was highly susceptible from 29 to 9 C. Temperature correlated negatively with the number of sunflower broomrape and Egyptian broomrape shoots that emerged above the soil in the R variety, and positively in the S variety. The number of degenerated tubercles found on the roots of the resistant variety correlated positively with temperature in both sunflower broomrape and Egyptian broomrape. No such correlation could be found in the susceptible sunflower variety grown in the presence of these two parasites. The resistance response of the R variety to sunflower broomrape and Egyptian broomrape was similar regardless of temperature regime. Parasite seeds were successfully germinated and attached to the sunflower roots but the parasite at the infection site degenerated and died. On the other hand, the susceptible variety (S) was equally susceptible to Egyptian broomrape and sunflower broomrape in all the temperature regimes tested, and susceptibility increased as temperature increased.
Nomenclature: Sunflower broomrape, Orobanche cumana Wallr. ORACU; Egyptian broomrape, Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. ORAAE; sunflower, Helianthus annuus L.