The effects of surfactants on retention, absorption, and efficacy were determined for bromoxynil, 2,4-D amine, and glyphosate on kochia and Russian thistle. Bromoxynil, 2,4-D amine, and glyphosate retention were similar for both species. Surfactants improved spray retention on kochia and Russian thistle compared with spray mixtures without surfactant. Herbicides mixed with allinol 810-60 surfactant were generally retained better than with MON 0818, oxysorbic 20, or R-11 surfactant. Bromoxynil phytotoxicity was not affected by surfactants, and all surfactants equally enhanced 2,4-D amine phytotoxicity. Glyphosate phytotoxicity to kochia was enhanced only by MON 0818 and oxysorbic 20, and phytotoxicity to Russian thistle was enhanced only by MON 0818. Bromoxynil, with or without surfactants, was absorbed similarly by kochia and Russian thistle. 2,4-D amine and glyphosate absorption were greater with surfactants than without. Kochia and Russian thistle leaves had visibly similar crystalline epicuticular wax structure when plants were grown at ≤ 40% or ≥ 80% relative humidity, which did influence absorption of these herbicides.
Nomenclature: Bromoxynil; 2,4-D amine; glyphosate; kochia, Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. KCHSC; Russian thistle, Salsola iberica L. SASKA.