Absorption and translocation of three commercial formulations of glyphosate, the isopropylamine salt formulated as Roundup Ultra™ (IPA1) and Roundup UltraMax™ (IPA2) and the diammonium salt formulated as Touchdown™ IQ (DA), were compared in three- to five-leaf velvetleaf, common waterhemp, and pitted morningglory. Absorption of 14C-glyphosate in velvetleaf was not significantly different among the three formulations up to 50 h after treatment (HAT). More absorption of 14C-glyphosate occurred in the IPA1 (26.0%) vs. the IPA2 (17.7%) formulation over 74 h. Of the total 14C-glyphosate absorbed, 20 to 35% was translocated from the treated leaf to the rest of the plant. Initial absorption of 14C-glyphosate was rapid in common waterhemp with the IPA1 (42.7%) and IPA2 (30.7%) formulations; both were higher compared with absorption of the DA formulation (11.5%) by 2 HAT. These differences continued up to 26 HAT, but no differences were evident by 74 HAT. Up to 65% of the 14C-glyphosate absorbed was translocated out of the treated leaf by 74 HAT, with roots the primary sink. Initial absorption of 14C-glyphosate was slow in pitted morningglory compared with the other species. More foliar absorption occurred in plants treated with the DA (13.6%) vs. the IPA2 formulation (4.9%) by 6 HAT. Absorption beyond 26 HAT was not different among the three glyphosate formulations. Translocation of 14C-glyphosate to roots was 27% greater as the DA salt than IPA1 and IPA2 by 74 HAT. The distribution pattern of glyphosate was similar in all species; phosphorimages demonstrated movement both acropetal and basipetal, with accumulation in roots greater than in any other plant parts. An efficacy study parallel to the 14C study showed no difference among the three glyphosate formulations on the species investigated at both 74 HAT and 2 wk after treatment.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate; common waterhemp, Amaranthus rudis Sauer AMATA; pitted morningglory, Ipomoea lacunosa L. IPOLA; velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti Medicus ABUTH.