This study reports evolved resistance to fenoxaprop-P in a population of sprangletop from a rice field in Thailand (BLC1). After eight applications of fenoxaprop-P, the herbicide appeared no longer effective. To confirm herbicide resistance in the BLC1 population, three experiments were conducted. First, glasshouse experiments revealed that the BLC1 population survived 600 g ai ha−1 of fenoxaprop-P without visual injury. Second, the BLC1 population was treated with fenoxaprop-P and other acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)–inhibiting herbicides (quizalofop-P, cyhalofop-butyl, and profoxydim) under field conditions; BLC1 exhibited resistance to all of these herbicides. Third, seeds of susceptible SLC1 and resistant BLC1 were germinated on 0.6% (v/v) agar across a range of herbicide concentrations. The resistant BLC1 population exhibited 61-, 44-, 9- and 8-fold resistance to fenoxaprop-P, cyhalofop, quizalofop-P, and profoxydim, respectively, compared with a susceptible SLC1 population. At the enzyme level, ACCase from the resistant BLC1 exhibited 30, 24, 11, 4, and 5 times resistance to fenoxaprop, cyhalofop-butyl, haloxyfop, clethodim, and cycloxydim, respectively. The spectrum of resistance at the whole plant level correlated well with resistance at the ACCase level. Hence, the mechanism of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in this biotype of sprangletop is a herbicide-resistant ACCase. The specific mutation(s) of the ACCase gene that endows resistance in this population remains to be investigated.
Nomenclature: Clethodim; cycloxydim; cyhalofop; fenoxaprop-P; haloxyfop; profoxydim; quizalofop-P; sprangletop, Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees LEPCH; rice, Oryza sativa L.