Interactions between weeds and organisms in other pest categories are inevitable. Weeds are plants and therefore ecologically are producers. All other pest organisms are consumers; they are herbivores or pathogens and can thus use weeds directly as a food source. Beneficial organisms are primary carnivores that feed on herbivores; weeds can support beneficials indirectly when they feed on herbivores living on weeds. Weeds can also serve to mask crop plants from herbivore pests; the mechanisms by which this occurs are still debated. Presence of a weed canopy modifies ecosystem microclimate and provides shelter for pests and beneficials that would otherwise not survive. Tactics used to control pests can have impacts on nontarget organisms in other pest categories. Changes in tillage for weed control can impact population development of other pests. Pesticides can affect nontarget organisms resulting in unanticipated changes in crop tolerance and pest control. Development of true integrated pest management programs requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates interactions between organisms in different pest categories.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 53 • No. 6