Controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine giant foxtail epicuticular wax (ECW) deposition and fluazifop-P absorption under different environmental conditions and with two adjuvants. Drought stress and low temperature increased leaf ECW content, whereas low light intensity decreased ECW content compared with medium light intensity. Drought stress conditions decreased the fatty acid and primary alcohol content of ECW and increased the hydrocarbon content compared with field capacity. Compositional changes would make the ECW more hydrophobic and reduce leaf wetting by herbicide spray. Increasing air temperature decreased the aldehyde content of ECW, whereas decreasing light intensity increased ECW fatty acid and aldehyde content while decreasing primary alcohols and esters. Compositional changes under low light intensity would make the ECW more hydrophilic and increase leaf wetting by a herbicide spray. Drought stress reduced fluazifop-P absorption regardless of the temperature but could not further reduce fluazifop-P absorption under low light intensity. Fluazifop-P absorption by plants under low light and drought stress conditions was similar to plants under low or medium light intensity and field capacity conditions. Similarly, the rate of fluazifop-P absorption was less under drought stress and low light conditions. Fluazifop-P absorption was greater when crop oil concentrate was added compared with 28% urea ammonium nitrate or no additive. Crop oil concentrate, added to the herbicide solution, overcame reduced fluazifop-P absorption under the low light conditions and in one of the two drought stress regimes but could not overcome reduced fluazifop-P absorption with the high temperature regime.
Nomenclature: Fluazifop-P; giant foxtail, Setaria faberi Herr. SETFA.