Bispyribac is registered for postemergence control of broadleaf, sedge, and grass weeds in rice. Bispyribac inhibits the acetolactate synthase enzyme in sensitive plants. Herbicides in this class of chemistry require a spray adjuvant to achieve optimal efficacy, often achieve different levels of weed control according to the spray adjuvant used, and typically have rainfast periods of at least 6 to 8 h. Efficacy and rainfastness of bispyribac can be affected by spray adjuvant and the addition of urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of spray adjuvant type, addition of UAN, and soil moisture on bispyribac efficacy on barnyardgrass. Control of barnyardgrass was improved when UAN was added to bispyribac at 0.4 or 0.8 g ha−1 plus an organosilicone-based nonionic surfactant (OSL/NIS) or methylated seed oil/organosilicone (MSO/OSL) spray adjuvant. The type of adjuvant added to the spray solution affected bispyribac efficacy on barnyardgrass. The addition of UAN decreased the rainfast period from 8 h (registered rainfast period) to 1 or 4 h (99 to 100% control) when either the OSL/NIS or MSO/OSL adjuvant was applied with bispyribac, respectively. Applying UAN and OSL/NIS or MSO/OSL adjuvant with bispyribac enhanced efficacy and reduced the time period required between bispyribac application and washoff during a rainfall event. Increasing soil moisture conditions resulted in greater efficacy from bispyribac when applied with and without UAN.
Nomenclature: Bispyribac; barnyardgrass, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. ECHCG; rice, Oryza sativa L.