Horseweed is an increasingly problematic weed in soybean because of the frequent occurrence of glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of crop rotation, winter wheat cover crops (WWCC), residual nonglyphosate herbicides, and preplant herbicide application timing on the population dynamics of GR horseweed and crop yield. A field study was conducted at a site with a moderate infestation of GR horseweed (approximately 1 plant m−2) with crop rotation (soybean–corn or soybean–soybean) as main plots and management systems as subplots. Management systems were evaluated by quantifying horseweed plant density, seedbank density, and crop yield. Crop rotation did not influence in-field horseweed or seedbank densities at any data census timing. Preplant herbicides applied in the spring were more effective at reducing horseweed plant densities than when applied in the previous fall. Spring-applied, residual herbicide systems were the most effective at reducing season long horseweed densities and protecting crop yield because horseweed in this region behaves primarily as a summer annual weed. Horseweed seedbank densities declined rapidly in the soil by an average of 76% for all systems over the first 10 mo before new seed rain. Despite rapid decline in total seedbank density, seed for GR biotypes remained in the seedbank for at least 2 yr. Therefore, to reduce the presence of GR horseweed biotypes in a local no-till weed flora, integrated weed management (IWM) systems should be developed to reduce total horseweed populations based on the knowledge that seed for GR biotypes are as persistent in the seed bank as glyphosate-sensitive (GS) biotypes.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate; horseweed, Conyza canadensis L. ERICA; corn, Zea mays L; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L.