Laboratory studies were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the effects of temperature and propanil on alligatorweed control with penoxsulam. Biomass reduction of alligatorweed at 42 d after treatment (DAT) compared to nontreated was greatest at 21/11 C (day/night) compared to 26/18 C or 30/25 C for all treatments. Propanil plus penoxsulam reduced biomass less than penoxsulam applied alone, independent of temperature. At 21 and 27 C, delaying propanil application 3 d after penoxsulam provided similar biomass reduction to penoxsulam applied alone. At 27 C and 30 C, delaying propanil application 10 d after treatment was required to achieve biomass reduction greater or equal to penoxsulam applied alone. Absorption and translocation of 14C penoxsulam indicated that propanil reduced absorption of penoxsulam into the treated leaf of alligatorweed 48 h after treatment. This research demonstrates the potential for propanil to antagonize penoxsulam when applied to alligatorweed. Under the most severe antagonistic conditions (30 C) propanil applications following penoxsulam needed to be delayed 10 d to avoid antagonism.
Nomenclature: Penoxsulam; propanil; alligatorweed, Alternantherea philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. ALRPH.