Asiatic dayflower has recently become a troublesome weed in eastern Iowa. This weed demonstrates an extended emergence period and there is anecdotal evidence of glyphosate tolerance. Thus, Asiatic dayflower is difficult to manage in glyphosate-resistant (GR) corn and soybean. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of Asiatic dayflower to glyphosate applied at different rates and growth stages. Field research was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate different herbicides for Asiatic dayflower control in soybean. PRE herbicides were applied at planting and POST herbicides were applied 21 and 42 d after planting (DAP). In addition, shikimate accumulation in response to glyphosate was compared among Asiatic dayflower and GR and non-GR corn and soybean. Under greenhouse conditions, a single application of glyphosate (0.84 kg ae ha−1) did not control Asiatic dayflower. Only the highest rate evaluated, 13.44 kg ae ha−1 (16X), was lethal to Asiatic dayflower. Even when applied at an early growth stage (two leaves) and using high rates (3.36 kg ae ha−1), glyphosate controlled Asiatic dayflower just 28%. In the field, metribuzin and KIH-485 controlled Asiatic dayflower 80 and 73%, respectively. Early POST applications (21 DAP) of cloransulam or lactofen controlled Asiatic dayflower 80 and 67%, respectively. A single glyphosate application of 0.86 kg ae ha−1 controlled Asiatic dayflower approximately 50%. Glyphosate-treated Asiatic dayflower and non-GR corn and soybeans accumulated shikimate after application. GR corn and soybeans did not accumulate shikimate in response to glyphosate. Twenty-one days after treatment, all the non-GR soybean and corn plants died; however, Asiatic dayflower plants survived.
Nomenclature: Cloransulam; glyphosate; KIH-485, 3-[(5-difluoromethoxy-1-methyl-3-trifluormethylpyrazol-4-yl) methylsulfonyl]-4,5-dihydro-5,5-dimethylisoxazole; lactofen; metribuzin; Asiatic dayflower; Commelina communis L.; corn; Zea mays L.; soybean; Glycine max (L.) Merr