Rice flatsedge and barnyardgrass are widespread and competitive weeds in direct-seeded rice. Developing integrated weed management strategies that elevate suppression of weeds by rice through crop density, nutrition, and cultivar choice requires better understanding of the extent to which rice interferes with the growth of these weeds and how these species respond to resource limitation with crop interference. Rice interference reduced the height of barnyardgrass but did not affect height of rice flatsedge. These weed species were able to grow taller than rice and thus avoided being shaded. Increased specific stem length under crop interference may demonstrate a strategy of stem elongation to allow the top portion of the weeds to be kept out of shade. Rice interference reduced inflorescence and shoot biomass of both weed species. Barnyardgrass showed the ability to reduce the effects of rice interference by increasing leaf weight ratio. The present study shows that crop interference alone may reduce weed growth but may not give complete control of these weed species. This highlights the need for the integration of management practices to achieve control of these weed species.
Nomenclature: Barnyardgrass, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv., ECHCG; rice flatsedge, Cyperus iria L. CYPIR; rice, Oryza sativa L.