Field experiments were conducted from 2004 through 2006 at Pendleton and Clemson, SC, to determine the influence of seasonal emergence of wild radish on phenological development, survival, and seed and biomass production in a noncompetitive environment. The duration of four developmental phases, emergence to bolting, bolting to flowering, flowering to silique production, and silique production to maturity, were recorded following wild radish sowing at monthly intervals from October 2004 through September 2006. Seedling emergence occurred 2 to 4 wk after sowing. Mortality of seedlings that emerged from December through March was greater than that of seedlings that emerged in all other months. Wild radish that emerged from April through August completed its life cycle by summer or early autumn. Wild radish that emerged from September through November was able to survive the winter and complete its life cycle the following spring. The developmental phases most affected by time of emergence were emergence to bolting and bolting to flowering. The duration of emergence to bolting ranged from 249 to 479 growing degree days (GDD), and bolting to flowering from 270 to 373 GDD, depending on the month of emergence. The total life cycle of wild radish varied from a low of 1,267 GDD following June emergence to 1,503 GDD following November emergence. Multiple regression analysis revealed that emergence to bolting and silique production to maturity phases were dependent on accumulated heat units and photoperiod. Seed and biomass production were influenced by month of emergence. An average of 1,470 seeds plant−1 was produced when emergence occurred in July and 10,170 seeds plant−1 when emergence occurred in November. Plants that emerged in autumn exhibited minimal growth during the winter months, but conditions were conducive for growth in mid-March and April, with biomass production of 809 g plant−1 at silique production.
Nomenclature: Wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum L. RAPRA.