This research investigated the temperature and light requirements for seed germination and emergence patterns of pinnate poppy, violet horned-poppy, and nodding hypecoum, three annual Papaveraceae species found in arable lands in the Mediterranean region. Two experiments performed in growth chambers (1) analyzed light (complete darkness or 12 h light) and temperature (10/5, 15/5, and 20/10 C day/night temperatures) requirements for germination, and (2) determined base temperature (Tb) for germination. An outdoor pot trial was also set up to study emergence patterns. All species showed higher germination in complete darkness than they did with a light regime, irrespective of dormancy level, time of the year, and temperature regime under which germination was tested, illustrating better germination when seeds are buried. Tb ranged from −2.6 to 0 C, depending on the species, indicating low temperature requirements for germination. Given their higher germination in daily fluctuating, rather than constant temperatures, the three Papaveraceae species should have the capacity to form persistent seed banks. These species behaved as winter annuals (from November to February) in the pot experiment and had difficulties to emerge in spring. Given that they cannot avoid autumn–winter chemical treatments, this could partially explain their regression in arable fields. These results bring new information to develop management strategies for these Papaveraceae species in agroecosystems.
Nomenclature: Nodding hypecoum, Hypecoum pendulum L. HCYPE; pinnate poppy, Papaver argemone L. PAPAR; violet horned-poppy, Roemeria hybrida (L.) DC. ROEHY.