In Argentina, Lolium spp. occur in 40% of winter cereal crops from the Pampas. Several years ago, cases of glyphosate-resistant perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were detected, and the use of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides to eradicate these plants has been considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of a putative pinoxaden-resistant L. perenne population to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. Around 80% of plants from the putative resistant population survived at a recommended dose of pinoxaden, and they produced viable seeds. The resistance indices (RIs) to pinoxaden were 5.1 and 2.8 for plant survival and seed production, respectively. A single point mutation that conferred a Asp-2078-Gly substitution in ACCase was the source of the resistance. To match the plant control achieved in the susceptible population, the resistant population required 5.4- and 10.4-fold greater doses of clethodim and quizalofop, respectively. RIs for viable seed production when treated with clethodim and quizalofop were 3.3 and 6.6, respectively. The Asp-2078-Gly mutation endowed significant levels of resistance to pinoxaden, clethodim, and quizalofop. For three herbicides, the level of resistance of a pinoxaden-resistant L. perenne population to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated, based on an evaluation of dose response for plant survival and seed production. The RIs were higher for plant survival than for seed production. In Argentina, the selection pressure associated with clethodim and haloxifop preplant application and pinoxaden use on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crops, would have favored the propagation of the Asp-2078-Gly mutation with its associated resistance.
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Vol. 68 • No. 2