The effect of spurred anoda competition in narrow- (35 cm) and wide-row (70 cm) soybean was studied in field experiments for 2 yr. Vigorous early soybean growth in narrow- compared with wide-row soybean resulted in lower radiation transmitted through the canopy, which can partially account for greater competitiveness of narrow-row than wide-row soybean. Soybean plant height was not significantly influenced by the row spacing. Relative yield total (RYT), which is the relationship between yield in mixtures and in monocultures of the crop or the weed and indicates resource complementarity, was equal to 1 with 12 spurred anoda/m2 in the year with less precipitation. Regardless of the row spacing, spurred anoda gave resource use complementarity with the crop (RYT > 1) in all other treatments; therefore, partial avoidance of competition in mixed species was evident. Soybean aggressivity, which takes into account the effect of competition on both the crop and the weed and indicates competitive ability, decreased with weed density in both row spacings. Soybean yield loss at harvest was linearly related to relative dry weight 40 d after planting. Weed-free narrow- and wide-row soybean produced similar yields. In the presence of the spurred anoda, soybean yield was greater in narrow-row compared with wide-row soybean only in the most humid year. A management system that uses quick canopy closure with narrow-row soybean can provide excellent soybean yield and suppression of low spurred anoda densities.
Nomenclature: Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr.; spurred anoda, Anoda cristata (L.) Schlecht. #3 ANVCR.
Additional index words: Aggressivity, competition, crop and weed biomass, row spacing, weed density.
Abbreviations: DAP, days after planting; PPF, photosynthetic photon flux; RDW, relative dry weights; RYT, relative yield total.