Field experiments were conducted to examine the influence of spray volume on glyphosate efficacy in relation to glyphosate rate, formulation, ammonium sulfate addition, and type of sprayer nozzle. Using several grass species it was shown that glyphosate efficacy increased as spray volume decreased from 190 to 23 L/ha. To obtain equal efficacy, glyphosate rates can be reduced by at least one-third when glyphosate is applied in 23 or 47 L/ha spray volume compared with 94 or 190 L/ha. The amount of surfactant in formulated glyphosate at 35 to 140 g ae/ha rates was insufficient when glyphosate was applied in 94 or 190 L/ha spray volumes. Additional surfactant enhanced glyphosate efficacy at these rates when applied in 94 or 190 L/ha spray volume, but efficacy was still less than when applied in 23 or 47 L/ha without additional surfactant. Thus, low spray volumes maximized glyphosate efficacy primarily through high herbicide concentration in the spray deposit and reduced salts from the carrier to antagonize efficacy. Glyphosate applied in 23 L/ha spray volume with drift-reducing nozzles provided control equal to that provided by glyphosate applied with standard flat-fan nozzles. Grass control also was equal from several glyphosate formulations that contained surfactants, regardless of spray volume.
Additional index words: Adjuvant, application methods, spray deposit, spray droplet.
Abbreviations: AMS, ammonium sulfate; DAT, days after treatment; NIS, nonionic surfactant.