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1 January 2004 Effect of Glyphosate Spray Coverage on Control of Pitted Morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa)
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Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of glyphosate rate and degree of glyphosate spray coverage on pitted morningglory control. Pitted morningglory in the two-, four-, and six-leaf growth stages were treated with the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate at 0.28, 0.56, 0.84, 1.12, 1.40, and 1.68 kg ai/ha. Two- and four-leaf plants were controlled 98% with 1.68 kg/ha glyphosate, whereas six-leaf plants were controlled 68%. Control of two-, four-, and six-leaf plants with the commonly used field rate of 1.12 kg/ha was 68, 60, and 50%, respectively. In a separate greenhouse study, four-leaf pitted morningglory plants with 0, 33, 66, or 100% of their total leaf area exposed to herbicide spray were treated with 0.84, 1.68, or 3.36 kg/ha glyphosate. Increasing glyphosate rate from 0.84 to 3.36 kg/ha increased control from 36 to 88%. In contrast, increasing percent leaf exposure to glyphosate from 0 to 100% increased control from 57 to 75%. Increasing glyphosate rate from 0.84 to 1.68 kg/ha always improved control. However, increasing glyphosate rate from 1.68 to 3.36 kg/ha was beneficial only when no leaves were exposed to the spray solution. In the field, glyphosate spray coverage decreased from 85 to 40% as plant density increased from 1 to 32 plants/m2. However, control decreased only 11% (90 to 79%) between the highest and lowest levels of glyphosate spray coverage. These results demonstrated that inadequate control of pitted morningglory with glyphosate was more related to tolerance than glyphosate spray coverage. Glyphosate rates higher than 1.68 kg/ha may be beneficial when spray coverage is severely limited or when plants are beyond the four-leaf growth stage.

Nomenclature: Glyphosate; pitted morningglory, Ipomoea lacunosa L. #3 IPOLA.

Additional index words: Biomass reduction, herbicide efficacy, herbicide tolerance, plant density, plant population.

Abbreviations: LAI, leaf area index; PAR, photosynthetically active radiation; WAT, weeks after treatment.

CLIFFORD H. KOGER, DANIEL H. POSTON, and KRISHNA N. REDDY "Effect of Glyphosate Spray Coverage on Control of Pitted Morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa)," Weed Technology 18(1), 124-130, (1 January 2004).
Published: 1 January 2004

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